Feng intimates progress and development. When a king has reached the point (which the name denotes) there is no occasion to be anxious (through fear of a change). Let him be as the sun at noon.彖传: 丰, 大也. 明以动, 故丰. 王假之, 尚大也. 勿忧宜日中, 宜照天下也. 日中则昃, 月盈则食, 天地盈虚, 与时消息, 而况人于人乎？况于鬼神乎？ Tuàn zhuàn: Fēng, dà yě. Míng yǐ dòng, gù fēng. Wáng jiǎ zhī, shàng dà yě. Wù yōu yí rì zhōng, yí zhào tiān xià yě. Rì zhōng zé zè, yuè yíng zé shí, tiān dì yíng xū, yǔ shí xiāo xi, ér kuàng rén yú rén hū? Kuàng yú guǐ shén hū?
Feng has the signification of being great. It is made up of the trigrams (representing) intelligence and movement directed by that intelligence. It is thus that it has that signification. ‘The king has reached the condition (denoted by Feng):’ - he has still to make it greater. ‘There is no occasion to be anxious. Let him be as the sun at noon:’ - it is for him to cause his light to shine on all under the sky. When the sun has reached the meridian height, it begins to decline. When the moon has become full, it begins to wane. The (interaction of) heaven and earth is now vigorous and abundant, now dull and scanty, growing and diminishing according to the seasons. How much more must it be so with (the operations of) men! How much more also with the spiritual agency!象传: 雷电皆至, 丰; 君子以折狱致刑. Xiàng zhuàn: Léi diàn jiē zhì, fēng; jūn zǐ yǐ zhé yù zhì xíng.
(The trigrams representing) thunder and lightning combine to form Feng. The superior man, in accordance with this, decides cases of litigation, and apportions punishments with exactness.
The first ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject meeting with his mate. Though they are both of the same character, there will be no error. Advance will call forth approval.象传: 虽旬无咎, 过旬灾也. Xiàng zhuàn: Suī xún wú jiù, guò xún zāi yě.
‘Though they are both of the same character, there will be no error:’ - if the subject of this line seek to overpass that similarity, there will be calamity.
The second ‘six’, divided, shows its subject surrounded by screens so large and thick that at midday he can see from them the constellation of the Bushel. If he go (and try to enlighten his ruler who is thus marked), he will make himself to be viewed with suspicion and dislike. Let him cherish his feeling of sincere devotion that he may thereby move (his ruler's mind), and there will be good fortune.象传: 有孚发若, 信以发志也. Xiàng zhuàn: Yǒu fú fā ruò, xìn yǐ fā zhì yě.
‘Let him cherish his feeling of sincere devotion, that it shall appear being put forth:’ - it is by sincerity that the mind is affected.
The third ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject with an (additional) screen of a large and thick banner, through which at midday he can see (the small) Mei star. (In the darkness) he breaks his right arm; but there will be no error.象传: 丰其沛, 不可大事也. 折其右肱, 终不可用也. Xiàng zhuàn: Fēng qí pèi, bù kě dà shì yě. shé qí yòu gōng, zhōng bù kě yòng yě.
‘There is an (additional) screen of a large and thick banner:’ - great things should not be attempted (in such circumstances). ‘He breaks his right arm:’ - in the end he will not be fit to be employed.
The fourth ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject in a tent so large and thick that at midday he can see from it the constellation of the Bushel. But he meets with the subject of the (first) line, undivided like himself. There will be good fortune.象传: 丰其蔀, 位不当也. 日中见斗, 幽不明也. 遇其夷主, 吉; 行也. Xiàng zhuàn: Fēng qí bù, wèi bù dàng yě. rì zhōng jiàn dǒu, yōu bù míng yě. yù qí yí zhǔ, jí; xíng yě.
‘He is surrounded by a screen large and thick:’ - the position of the line is inappropriate. ‘At midday he sees the constellation of the Bushel:’ - there is darkness and no light. ‘He meets with the subject of the line, undivided like himself. There will be good fortune:’ - action may be taken.
The fifth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject bringing around him the men of brilliant ability. There will be occasion for congratulation and praise. There will be good fortune.象传: 六五之吉, 有庆也. Xiàng zhuàn: Liù wǔ zhī jí, yǒu qìng yě.
‘The good fortune indicated by the fifth ‘six’, (divided), is the congratulation (that is sure to arise).
The topmost ‘six’, divided, shows its subject with his house made large, but only serving as a screen to his household. When he looks at his door, it is still, and there is nobody about it. For three years no one is to be seen. There will be evil.象传: 丰其屋, 天际翔也. 窥其户, 阒其无人, 自藏也. Xiàng zhuàn: Fēng qí wū, tiān jì xiáng yě. Kuī qí hù, qù qí wú rén, zì cáng yě.
‘He has made his house large:’ - he soars (in his pride) to the heavens. ‘He looks at his door, which is still, with no one about it:’ - he (only) keeps himself withdrawn from all others.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the 象传 Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin.
The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) ➚ which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling.
We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.
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