In Jin we see a prince who secures the tranquility (of the people) presented on that account with numerous horses (by the king), and three times in a day received at interviews.彖传: 晋, 进也. 明出地上, 顺而丽乎大明, 柔进而上行. 是以康侯用锡马蕃庶, 昼日三接也. Tuàn zhuàn: Jìn, jìn yě. míng chū dì shang, shùn ér lì hū dà míng, róu jìn ér shàng xíng. shì yǐ kāng hóu yòng xī mǎ fán shù, zhòu rì sān jiē yě.
Jin denotes advancing. (In Jin we have) the bright (sun) appearing above the earth; (the symbol of) docile submission cleaving to that of the Great brightness; and the weak line advanced and moving above: - all these things give us the idea of 'a prince who secures the tranquility (of the people), presented on that account with numerous horses (by the king), and three times in a day received at interviews.'象传: 明出地上, 晋; 君子以自昭明德. Xiàng zhuàn: Míng chū dì shang, jìn; jūn zǐ yǐ zì zhāo míng dé.
(The trigram representing) the earth and that for the bright (sun) coming forth above it form Jin. The superior man, according to this, gives himself to make more brilliant his bright virtue.
The first ‘six’, divided, shows one wishing to advance, and (at the same time) kept back. Let him be firm and correct, and there will be good fortune. If trust be not reposed in him, let him maintain a large and generous mind, and there will be no error.象传: 晋如, 摧如; 独行正也. 裕无咎; 未受命也. Xiàng zhuàn: Jìn rú, cuī rú; dú xíng zhèng yě. yù wú jiù; wèi shòu mìng yě.
‘He appears wishing to advance, but (at the same time) being kept back:’ - all-alone he pursues the correct course. ‘Let him maintain a large and generous mind, and there will be no error:’ - he has not yet received an official charge.
The second ‘six’, divided, shows its subject with the appearance of advancing, and yet of being sorrowful. If he be firm and correct, there will be good fortune. He will receive this great blessing from his grandmother.象传: 受玆介福, 以中正也. Xiàng zhuàn: Shòu zī jiè fú, yǐ zhōng zhèng yě.
‘He will receive this great blessing:’ - for he is in the central place and the correct position for him.
The third ‘six’, divided, shows its subject trusted by all (around him). All occasion for repentance will disappear.象传: 众允之, 志上行也. Xiàng zhuàn: Zhòng yǔn zhī, zhì shàng xíng yě.
‘All (around) trust him:’ - their (common) aim is to move upwards and act.
The fourth ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject with the appearance of advancing, but like a marmot. However firm and correct he may be, the position is one of peril.象传: 硕鼠贞厉, 位不当也. Xiàng zhuàn: Shuò shǔ zhēn lì, wèi bù dàng yě.
‘(He advances like) a marmot. However firm and correct he may be, his position is one of peril:’ - his place is not that appropriate for him.
The fifth ‘six’, divided, shows how all occasion for repentance disappears (from its subject). (But) let him not concern himself about whether he shall fail or succeed. To advance will be fortunate, and in every way advantageous.象传: 失得勿恤, 往有庆也. Xiàng zhuàn: Shī dé wù xù, wǎng yǒu qìng yě.
‘Let him not concern himself whether he fails or succeeds:’ - his movement in advance will afford ground for congratulation.
The topmost ‘nine’, undivided, shows one advancing his horns. But he only uses them to punish the (rebellious people of his own) city. The position is perilous, but there will be good fortune. (Yet) however firm and correct he may be, there will be occasion for regret.象传: 维用伐邑, 道未光也. Xiàng zhuàn: Wéi yòng fá yì, dào wèi guāng yě.
‘He uses his horns only to punish (the rebellious people of) his city:’ - his course of procedure is not yet brilliant.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the 象传 Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin.
The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) ➚ which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling.
We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.
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