Tong Ren (or 'Union of men') appears here (as we find it) in the (remote districts of the) country, indicating progress and success. It will be advantageous to cross the great stream. It will be advantageous to maintain the firm correctness of the superior man.彖传: 同人, 柔得位得中, 而应乎乾, 曰同人. 同人曰, 同人于野, 亨. 利涉大川, 乾行也. 文明以健, 中正而应, 君子正也. 唯君子为能通天下之志. Tuàn zhuàn: Tóng rén, róu dé wèi dé zhòng, ér yìng hū qián, yuētóng rén. tóng rén yuē, Tóng rén yú yě, hēng. Lì shè dà chuān, qián xíng yě. Wén míng yǐ jiàn, zhōng zhèng ér yìng, jūn zǐ zhèng yě. Wéi jūn zǐ wéi néng tōng tiān xià zhī zhì.
In Tong Ren the weak (line) has the place (of influence), the central place, and responds to (the corresponding line in) Qian (above); hence comes its name of Tong Ren (or 'Union of men'). Tong Ren says: - The language, 'Tong Ren appears here (as we find it) in (the remote districts of) the country, indicating progress and success, and that it will be advantageous to cross the great stream,' is molded by its containing the strength (symbolized) in Qian. (Then) we have (the trigram indicating) elegance and intelligence, supported by (that indicating) strength; with the line in the central, and its correct, position, and responding (to the corresponding line above): - (all representing) the correct course of the superior man. It is only the superior man who can comprehend and affect the minds of all under the sky.象传: 天与火, 同人; 君子以类族辨物. Xiàng zhuàn: Tiān yǔ huǒ, tóng rén; jūn zǐ yǐ lèi zú biàn wù.
(The trigrams for) heaven and fire form Tong Ren. The superior man, in accordance with this), distinguishes things according to their kinds and classes.
The first ‘nine’, undivided, (shows the representative of) the union of men just issuing from his gate. There will be no error.象传: 出门同人, 又谁咎也. Xiàng zhuàn: Chū mén tóng rén, yòu shéi jiù yě.
'(The representative of) the union of men is just issuing from his gate:' - who will blame him?
The second ‘six’, divided, (shows the representative of) the union of men in relation with his kindred. There will be occasion for regret.象传: 同人于宗, 吝道也. Xiàng zhuàn: Tóng rén yú zōng, lìn dào yě.
'(The representative of) the union of men appears in relation with his kindred:' - that is the path to regret.
The third ‘nine’, undivided, (shows its subject) with his arms hidden in the thick grass, and at the top of a high mound. (But) for three years he makes no demonstration.象传: 伏戎于莽, 敌刚也. 三岁不兴, 安行也. Xiàng zhuàn: Fú róng yú mǎng, dí gāng yě. sān suì bù xīng, ān xíng yě.
'He hides his arms in the thick grass:' - because of the strength of his opponent. 'For three years he makes no demonstration:' - how can he do anything?
The fourth ‘nine’, undivided, (shows its subject) mounted on the city wall; but he does not proceed to make the attack (he contemplates). There will be good fortune.象传: 乘其墉, 义弗克也, 其吉, 则困而反则也. Xiàng zhuàn: Chéng qí yōng, yì fú kè yě, qí jí, zé kùn ér fǎn zé yě.
'He is mounted on his city-wall;' but yielding to the right, 'he does not proceed to make the attack (he contemplated).' (Where it is said),'There will be good fortune,' (that shows how) he feels the strait he is in, and returns to the rule of law.
In the fifth ‘nine’, undivided, (the representative of) the union of men first wails and cries out, and then laughs. His great host conquers, and he (and the subject of the second line) meet together.象传: 同人之先, 以中直也. 大师相遇, 言相克也. Xiàng zhuàn: Tóng rén zhī xiān, yǐ zhōng zhí yě. dà shī xiāng yù, yán xiāng kè yě.
The first action of (the representative of) the union of men (here described) arises from his central position and straightforward character. 'The meeting secured by his great host' intimates that the opponents of it have been overcome.
The topmost ‘nine’, undivided, (shows the representative of) the union of men in the suburbs. There will be no occasion for repentance.象传: 同人于郊, 志未得也. Xiàng zhuàn: Tóng rén yú jiāo, zhì wèi dé yě.
'(The representative of) the union of men appears in the suburbs:' - his object has not yet been attained.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the 象传 Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin.
The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) ➚ which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling.
We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.
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