Earth Earth


Yang - controlling line Yin line Yin line Yang line Yin line Yang line



Kùn [47] Confinement; Exhaustion
噬嗑 Shì Kè [21] Gnawing; Eradicating
Xiè [40] Disentangle; Relief

month Month 8 ; Host or Controlling line : 6
贲: . 攸往. Bì: hēng. xiǎo lì yǒu yōu wǎng.

Bi indicates that there should be free course (in what it denotes). There will be little advantage (however) if it be allowed to advance (and take the lead).

: 贲, ; 柔, . 柔, 攸往. ; , . 观, 变; 观, . Tuàn zhuàn: Bì, hēng; róu lái ér wén gāng, gù hēng. fēn gāng shàng ér wén róu, gù xiǎo lì yǒu yōu wǎng. tiān wén yě; wén míng yǐ zhǐ, rén wén yě. guān hū tiān wén, yǐ chá shí biàn; guān hū rén wén, yǐ huà chéng tiān xià.

(When it is said that) Bi indicates that there should be free course (in what it denotes): - (We see) the weak line coming and ornamenting the strong lines (of the lower trigram), and hence (it is said that ornament) ‘should have free course.’ On the other hand, the strong line above ornaments the weak ones (of the upper trigram), and hence (it is said) that ‘there will be little advantage, if (ornament) be allowed to advance (and take the lead).’ (This is illustrated in the) appearances that ornament the sky. Elegance and intelligence (denoted by the lower trigram) regulated by the arrest (denoted by the upper) suggest the observances that adorn human (society). We look at the ornamental figures of the sky, and thereby ascertain the changes of the seasons. We look at the ornamental observances of society, and understand how the processes of transformation are accomplished all under heaven.

: , 贲; 庶政, 敢折狱. Xiàng zhuàn: Shān xià yǒu huǒ, bì; jūn zǐ yǐ míng shù zhèng, wú gǎn zhé yù.

(The trigram representing) a mountain and that for fire under it form Bi. The superior man, in accordance with this, throws a brilliancy around his various processes of government, but does not dare (in a similar way) to decide cases of criminal litigation.

young yang young yin young yin young yang young yin changing yang
I Ching transform
Gèn [52] Immobility; Stillness
: 贲趾, 徒. Chū jiǔ: bì qí zhǐ, shè chē ér tú.

The first ‘nine’, undivided, shows one adorning (the way of) his feet. He can discard a carriage and walk on foot.

: 徒, . Xiàng zhuàn: Shè chē ér tú, yì fú chéng yě.

'He can discard a carriage and walk on foot:' - righteousness requires that he should not ride.

young yang young yin young yin young yang changing yin young yang
I Ching transform
Dà Xù [26] Impeded; Great nourishment
: 贲须. Liù èr: bì qí xū.

The second ‘six’, divided, shows one adorning his beard.

: 贲须, . Xiàng zhuàn: Bì qí xū, yǔ shàng xīng yě.

'He adorns his beard:' - he rouses himself to action (only) along with the (subject of the) line above.

young yang young yin young yin changing yang young yin young yang
I Ching transform
[27] Nutrition; Nourishment
: 贲, . Jiǔ sān: bì rú rú rú, yǒng zhēn jí.

The third ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject with the appearance of being adorned and sprinkled (with rich favors). But let him ever maintain his firm correctness, and there will be good fortune.

: , 终. Xiàng zhuàn: Yǒng zhēn zhī jí, zhōng mò zhī líng yě.

'The good fortune consequent on his ever maintaining firm correctness' is due to this, - that to the end no one will insult him.

young yang young yin changing yin young yang young yin young yang
I Ching transform
[30] Adherence; Brightness
: 贲, , 寇婚媾. Liù sì: bì rú pó rú, bái mǎ hàn rú, fěi kòu hūn gòu.

The fourth ‘six’, divided, shows one looking as if adorned, but only in white. As if (mounted on) a white horse, and furnished with wings, (he seeks union with the subject of the first line), while (the intervening third pursues), not as a robber, but intent on a matrimonial alliance.

: , . 寇婚媾, 终. Xiàng zhuàn: Liù sì, dàng wèi yí yě. fěi kòu hūn gòu, zhōng wú yóu yě.

'The place occupied by the fourth ‘six’, (divided),' affords ground for doubt (as to its subject); but '(as the subject of the third pursues) not as a robber, but as intent on a matrimonial alliance,' he will in the end have no grudge against him.

young yang changing yin young yin young yang young yin young yang
I Ching transform
Jiā Rén [37] Relationship; Domesticity
: 贲, 束帛, 吝, 终. Liù wǔ: bì yú qiū yuán, shù bó jiān jiān, lìn, zhōng jí.

The fifth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject adorned by (the occupants of) the heights and gardens. He bears his roll of silk, small and slight. He may appear stingy; but there will be good fortune in the end.

: , . Xiàng zhuàn: Liù wǔ zhī jí, yǒu xǐ yě.

'The good fortune falling to the fifth ‘six’, (divided); affords occasion for joy.

changing yang young yin young yin young yang young yin young yang
I Ching transform
Míng Yí [36] Overshadow; Darkening
: 贲, . Shàng jiǔ: bái bì, wú jiù.

The sixth ‘nine’, undivided, shows one with white as his (only) ornament. There will be no error.

: , . Xiàng zhuàn: Bái bì wú jiù, shàng dé zhì yě.

'The freedom from error attached to (the subject of) the topmost line, with no ornament but the (simple white),' shows how he has attained his aim.

The Chinese Emperor

The Chinese Emperor


The institution of Emperor, as head of the Chinese family of people, lasted for thousands of years and to some extent lives on in the Presidency. In China there has been great respect for the Emperor/President who in turn is expected to rule wisely with the best interests of his subjects in mind. To early European visitors to China the structure was considered close to the ideal form of society.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin. The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling. We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.

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