Guai requires (in him who would fulfill its meaning) the exhibition (of the culprit's guilt) in the royal court, and a sincere and earnest appeal (for sympathy and support), with a consciousness of the peril (involved in cutting off the criminal). He should (also) make announcement in his own city, and show that it will not be well to have recourse at once to arms. (In this way) there will be advantage in whatever he shall go forward to.彖传: 夬, 决也, 刚决柔也. 健而说, 决而和, 扬于王庭, 柔乘五刚也. 孚号有厉, 其危乃光也. 告自邑, 不利即戎, 所尚乃穷也. 利有攸往, 刚长乃终也. Tuàn zhuàn: Guài, jué yě, gāng jué róu yě. Jiàn ér shuō, jué ér hé, yáng yú wáng tíng, róu chéng wǔ gāng yě. Fú hào yǒu lì, qí wēi nǎi guāng yě. Gào zì yì, bù lì jí róng, suǒ shàng nǎi qióng yě. Lì yǒu yōu wǎng, gāng cháng nǎi zhōng yě.
Guai is the symbol of displacing or removing. We see (in the figure) the strong (lines) displacing the weak. (We have in it the attributes of) strength and complacency. There is displacement, but harmony (continues). ‘The exhibition (of the criminal’s guilt) in the royal courtyard‘ is suggested by the (one) weak (line) mounted on the five strong lines. There ’is an earnest and sincere appeal (for sympathy and support), and a consciousness of the peril (involved in the undertaking):‘ - it is the realization of this danger, which makes the method (of compassing the object) brilliant. ’He should make an announcement in his own city, and show that it will not be well to have recourse at once to arms:‘ - (if he have recourse to arms), what he prefers will (soon) be exhausted. ’There will be advantage in whatever he shall go forward to:‘ - when the growth of the strong (lines) has been completed, there will be an end (of the displacement).象传: 泽上于天, 夬; 君子以施禄及下, 居德则忌. Xiàng zhuàn: Zé shàng yú tiān, guài; jūn zǐ yǐ shī lù jí xià, jū dé zé jì.
(The trigram representing) heaven and that for the waters of a marsh mounting above it form Guai. The superior man, in accordance with this, bestows emolument on those below him, and dislikes allowing his gifts to accumulate (unused).
The first ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject in (the pride of) strength advancing with his toes. He goes forward, but will not succeed. There will be ground for blame.象传: 不胜而往, 咎也. Xiàng zhuàn: Bù shèng ér wǎng, jiù yě.
‘Without (being able to) succeed, he goes forward:’ - this is an error.
The second ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject full of apprehension and appealing (for sympathy and help). Late at night hostile measures may be (taken against him), but he need not be anxious about them.象传: 莫夜有戎, 得中道也. Xiàng zhuàn: Mò yè yǒu róng, dé zhòng dào yě.
‘Though hostile measures be taken against him, he need not be anxious:’ - he pursues the course of the due mean.
The third ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject (about to advance) with strong (and determined) looks. There will be evil. (But) the superior man, bent on cutting off (the criminal), will walk alone and encounter the rain, (till he be hated by his proper associates) as if he were contaminated (by the others). (In the end) there will be no blame against him.象传: 君子夬夬, 终无咎也. Xiàng zhuàn: Jūn zǐ guài guài, zhōng wú jiù yě.
‘The superior man looks bent on cutting off the culprit:’ - there will in the end be no error.
The fourth ‘nine’, undivided, shows one from whose buttocks the skin has been stripped, and who walks slowly and with difficulty. (If he could act) like a sheep led (after its companions), occasion for repentance would disappear. But though he hear these words, he will not believe them.象传: 其行次且, 位不当也. 闻言不信, 聪不明也. Xiàng zhuàn: Qí xíng cì qiě, wèi bù dàng yě. wén yán bù xìn, cōng bù míng yě.
‘He walks slowly and with difficulty:’ - he is not in the place appropriate to him. ‘He hears these words, but does not believe them:’ - he hears, but does not understand.
The fifth ‘nine’, undivided, shows (the small men like) a bed of purslain, which ought to be uprooted with the utmost determination. (The subject of the line having such determination), his action, in harmony with his central position, will lead to no error or blame.象传: 中行无咎, 中未光也. Xiàng zhuàn: Zhōng háng wú jiù, zhōng wèi guāng yě.
‘If his action be in harmony with his central position, there will be no error:’ - but his standing in the due mean is not yet clearly displayed.
The sixth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject without any (helpers) on whom to call. His end will be evil.象传: 无号之凶, 终不可长也. Xiàng zhuàn: Wú hào zhī xiōng, zhōng bù kě cháng yě.
‘There is the misery of having none on whom to call:’ - the end will be that he cannot continue any longer.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the 象传 Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin.
The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) ➚ which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling.
We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.
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