For (the realization of what is taught in) Jia Ren, (or for the regulation of the family), what is most advantageous is that the wife be firm and correct.彖传: 家人, 女正位乎内, 男正位乎外, 男女正, 天地之大义也. 家人有严君焉, 父母之谓也. 父父, 子子, 兄兄, 弟弟, 夫夫, 妇妇, 而家道正; 正家而天下定矣. Tuàn zhuàn: Jiā rén, nǚ zhèng wèi hū nèi, nán zhèng wèi hū wài, nán nǚ zhèng, tiān dì zhī dà yì yě. Jiā rén yǒu yán jūn yān, fù mǔ zhī wèi yě. Fù fù, zǐ zǐ, xiōng xiōng, dì di, fū fū, fù fù, ér jiā dào zhèng; zhèng jiā ér tiān xià dìng yǐ.
In Jia Ren the wife has her correct place in the inner (trigram), and the man his correct place in the outer. That man and woman occupy their correct places is the great righteousness shown (in the relation and positions of) heaven and earth. In Jia Ren we have the idea of an authoritative ruler; - that, namely, represented by the parental authority. Let the father be indeed father, and the son son; let the elder brother be indeed elder brother, and the younger brother younger brother, let the husband be indeed husband, and the wife wife: - then will the family be in its normal state. Bring the family to that state, and all under heaven will be established.象传: 风自火出, 家人; 君子以言有物, 而行有恒. Xiàng zhuàn: Fēng zì huǒ chū, jiā rén; jūn zǐ yǐ yán yǒu wù, ér xíng yǒu héng.
(The trigram representing) fire, and that for wind coming forth from it, form Jia Ren. The superior man, in accordance with this, orders his words according to (the truth of) things, and his conduct so that it is uniformly consistent.
The first ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject establishing restrictive regulations in his household Occasion for repentance will disappear.象传: 闲有家, 志未变也. Xiàng zhuàn: Xián yǒu jiā, zhì wèi biàn yě.
‘He establishes restrictive regulations in his household: - (he does so), before any change has taken place in their wills.
The second ‘six’, divided, shows its subject taking nothing on herself, but in her central place attending to the preparation of the food. Through her firm correctness there will be good fortune.象传: 六二之吉, 顺以巽也. Xiàng zhuàn: Liù èr zhī jí, shùn yǐ xùn yě.
‘The good fortune attached to the second ‘six’, (divided),’ is due to the docility (of its subject), operating with humility.
The third ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject (treating) the members of the household with stern severity. There will be occasion for repentance, there will be peril, (but) there will (also) be good fortune. If the wife and children were to be smirking and chattering, in the end there would be occasion for regret.象传: 家人嗃嗃, 未失也; 妇子嘻嘻, 失家节也. Xiàng zhuàn: Jiā rén hè hè, wèi shī yě; fù zǐ xī xī, shī jiā jié yě.
When ‘the members of the household are treated with stern severity,’ there has been no (great) failure (in the regulation of the family). When ‘wife and children are smirking and chattering,’ the (proper) economy of the family has been lost.
The fourth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject enriching the family. There will be great good fortune.象传: 富家大吉, 顺在位也. Xiàng zhuàn: Fù jiā dà jí, shùn zài wèi yě.
‘The family is enriched, and there is great good fortune:’ - this is due to the docility (belonging to the subject of the line), and its being in its correct place.
The fifth ‘nine’, undivided, shows the influence of the king extending to his family. There need be no anxiety; there will be good fortune.象传: 王假有家, 交相爱也. Xiàng zhuàn: Wáng jiǎ yǒu jiā, jiāo xiāng ài yě.
‘The influence of the king extends to his family:’ - the intercourse between them is that of mutual love.
The topmost ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject possessed of sincerity and arrayed in majesty. In the end there will be good fortune.象传: 威如之吉, 反身之谓也. Xiàng zhuàn: Wēi rú zhī jí, fǎn shēn zhī wèi yě.
‘The good fortune connected with the display of majesty’ describes (the result of) the recovery of the true character.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the 象传 Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin.
The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) ➚ which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling.
We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.
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