Water Water

Kǎn [29]

Yin line Yang - controlling line Yin line Yin line Yang line Yin line

torrent of water

[30] Adherence; Brightness
Kǎn [29] Flow; Darkness
[27] Nutrition; Nourishment

Mid-Winter (Winter Solstice) ; Host or Controlling line : 5
坎: 坎, 孚, , . Kǎn: xíkǎn, yǒu fú, wéi xīn hēng, xíng yǒu shàng.

Kan, here repeated, shows the possession of sincerity, through which the mind is. penetrating. Action (in accordance with this) will be of high value.

: 坎, . 盈, 信. , . , 往. , , , 坎矣哉! Tuàn zhuàn: Xí kǎn, chóng xiǎn yě. shuǐ liú ér bù yíng, xíng xiǎn ér bù shī qí xìn. wéi xīn hēng, nǎi yǐ gāng zhōng yě. háng yǒu shàng, wǎng yǒu gōng yě. tiān xiǎn bù kě shēng yě, dì xiǎn shān chuān qiū líng yě, wáng gōng shè xiǎn yǐ shǒu qí guó, kǎn zhī shí yòng dà yǐ zāi!

Kan repeated shows us one defile succeeding another. This is the nature of water; - it flows on, without accumulating its volume (so as to overflow); it pursues its way through a dangerous defile, without losing its true (nature). That 'the mind is penetrating' is indicated by the strong (line) in the center. That 'action (in accordance with this) will be of high value' tells us that advance will be followed by achievement. The dangerous (height) of heaven cannot be ascended; the difficult places of the earth are mountains, rivers, hills, and mounds. Kings and princes arrange by means of such strengths, to maintain their territories. Great indeed is the use of (what is here) taught about seasons of peril.

: , 坎; , . Xiàng zhuàn: Shuǐ jiàn zhì, xí kǎn; jūn zǐ yǐ cháng dé xíng, xí jiāo shì.

(The representation of) water flowing on continuously forms the repeated Kan. The superior man, in accordance with this, maintains constantly the virtue (of his heart) and (the integrity of) his conduct, and practices the business of instruction.

young yin young yang young yin young yin young yang changing yin
I Ching transform
Jié [60] Regulation; Restriction
: 坎, 坎窞, 凶. Chū liù: xí kǎn, rù yú kǎn dàn, xiōng.

The first ‘six’, divided, shows its subject in the double defile, and (yet) entering a cavern within it. There will be evil.

: 坎, . Xiàng zhuàn: Xí kǎn rù kǎn, shī dào xiōng yě.

'In the double defile, he enters a cavern within it:' - he has missed his (proper) way, and there will be evil.

young yin young yang young yin young yin changing yang young yin
I Ching transform
[8] Coherence; Union
: 坎, 求. Jiǔ èr: kǎn yǒu xiǎn, qiú xiǎo dé.

The second ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject in all the peril of the defile. He will, however, get a little (of the deliverance) that he seeks.

: 求, . Xiàng zhuàn: Qiú xiǎo dé, wèi chū zhōng yě.

'He will get a little (of the deliverance) that he seeks:' - he will not yet escape from his enclosed position.

young yin young yang young yin changing yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Jǐng [48] Source; Replenish
: 坎坎, 枕, 坎窞, . Liù sān: lái zhī kǎn kǎn, xiǎn qiě zhěn, rù yú kǎn dàn, wù yòng.

The third ‘six’, divided, shows its subject, whether he comes or goes ( =descends or ascends), confronted by a defile. All is peril to him and unrest. (His endeavors) will lead him into the cavern of the pit. There should be no action (in such a case).

: 坎坎, 终. Xiàng zhuàn: Lái zhī kǎn kǎn, zhōng wú gōng yě.

'Whether he comes or goes, he is confronted by a defile:' - he will never (in such circumstances) achieve any success.

young yin young yang changing yin young yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Kùn [47] Confinement; Exhaustion
: 樽簋贰, 缶, 纳约牖, 终. Liù sì: zūn jiǔ guǐ èr, yòng fǒu, nà yuē zì yǒu, zhōng wú jiù.

The fourth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject (at a feast), with (simply) a bottle of spirits, and a subsidiary basket of rice, while (the cups and bowls) are (only) of earthenware. He introduces his important lessons (as his ruler's) intelligence admits. There will in the end be no error.

: 樽簋贰, . Xiàng zhuàn: Zūn jiǔ guǐ èr, gāng róu jì yě.

'(Nothing but) a bottle of spirits and a subsidiary basket of rice:' - (these describe) the meeting at this point of (those who are represented by) the strong and weak lines.

young yin changing yang young yin young yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Shī [7] Mass action; Multitude
: 坎盈, 祗, . Jiǔ wǔ: kǎn bù yíng, zhī jì píng, wú jiù.

The fifth ‘nine’, undivided, shows the water of the defile not yet full, (so that it might flow away); but order will (soon) be brought about. There will be no error.

: 坎盈, . Xiàng zhuàn: Kǎn bù yíng, zhōng wèi dà yě.

'The water in the defile is not full (so as to flow away):' - (the virtue indicated by) the central situation is not yet (sufficiently) great.

changing yin young yang young yin young yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Huàn [59] Dissolution; Dispersion
: 纆, 寘丛棘, , 凶. Shàng liù: xì yòng huī mò, zhì yú cóng jí, sān suì bù dé, xiōng.

The topmost ‘six’, divided, shows its subject bound with cords of three strands or two strands, and placed in the thicket of thorns. But in three years he does not learn the course for him to pursue. There will be evil.

: , 凶. Xiàng zhuàn: Shàng liù shī dào, xiōng sān suì yě.

The sixth line, divided, shows its subject missing his (proper) course:' - 'there will be evil for three years.'

zài to carry; to convey; to load

Made up of [ chē vehicle radical 159, shí ten; 10 radical 24, gē spear radical 62]


The radical is for a 'vehicle' and phonetic 'zai' which is conveniently composed of 'ten' and 'people' so both combine to suggest carrying a heavy load
Full information for
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin. The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling. We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.

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