Element:
Metal Metal

Kùn [47]

Yin line Yang line Yang line Yin line Yang - controlling line Yin line

Confinement
Exhaustion

straightened, distress

Mountain
Fire
[22] Pattern; Elegance
Opposite
Water
Wind
Jǐng [48] Source; Replenish
Inverse
Wind
Fire
Jiā Rén [37] Relationship; Domesticity
Mutual

month Month 9 ; Host or Controlling line : 2
困: , , , , 信. Kùn: hēng, zhēn, dà ren jí, wú jiù, yǒu yán bù xìn.

In (the condition denoted by) Kun there may (yet be) progress and success. For the firm and correct, the (really) great man, there will be good fortune. He will fall into no error. If he make speeches, his words cannot be made good.

: 困, . , 困, ; , . 信, . Tuàn zhuàn: Kùn, gāng yǎn yě. Xiǎn yǐ shuō, kùn ér bù shī qí suǒ, hēng; qí wéi jūn zǐ hū? zhēn dà ren jí, yǐ gāng zhōng yě. Yǒu yán bù xìn, shàng kǒu nǎi qióng yě.

In Kun (we see) the strong (lines) covered and obscured (by the weak). We have in it (the attribute of) peril going on to that of satisfaction. Who is it but the superior man that, though straitened, still does not fail in making progress to his proper end? ‘For the firm and correct, the (really) great man, there will be good fortune:’ - this is shown by the central positions of the strong (lines). ‘If he make speeches, his words cannot be made good:’ - to be fond of arguing or pleading is the way to be reduced to extremity.

: , 困; . Xiàng zhuàn: Zé wú shuǐ, kùn; jūn zǐ yǐ zhì mìng suì zhì.

(The trigram representing) a marsh, and (below it that for a defile, which has drained the other dry so that there is) no water in it, form Kun. The superior man, in accordance with this, will sacrifice his life in order to carry out his purpose.

young yin young yang young yang young yin young yang changing yin
I Ching transform
Lake
Lake
Duì [58] Serenity; Joy
Change
: 臀困, , 觌. Chū liù: tún kùn yú zhū mù, rù yú yōu gǔ, sān suì bù dí.

The first ‘six’, divided, shows its subject with bare buttocks straitened under the stump of a tree. He enters a dark valley, and for three years has no prospect (of deliverance).

: , 幽. Xiàng zhuàn: Rù yú yōu gǔ, yōu bù míng yě.

‘He enters a dark valley:’ - so benighted is he, and without clear vision.

young yin young yang young yang young yin changing yang young yin
I Ching transform
Lake
Earth
Cuì [45] Condensation; Gathering
Change
: 困, 朱绂, 用享祀, 凶, . Jiǔ èr: kùn yú jiǔ shí, zhū fú fāng lái, lì yòng xiǎng sì, zhēng xiōng, wú jiù.

The second ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject straitened amidst his wine and viands. There come to him anon the red knee-covers (of the ruler). It will be well for him (to maintain his sincerity as) in sacrificing. Active operations (on his part) will lead to evil, but he will be free from blame.

: 困, . Xiàng zhuàn: Kùn yú jiǔ shí, zhōng yǒu qìng yě.

‘He is straitened amidst his wine and viands:’ - (but) his position is central, and there will be ground for congratulation.

young yin young yang young yang changing yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Lake
Wind
Dà Guò [28] Surpassing; Excess
Change
: 困, 据蒺蔾, , 妻, 凶. Liù sān: kùn yú dàn, jù yú jí lí, rù yú qí gōng, bù jiàn qí qī, xiōng.

The third ‘six’, divided, shows its subject straitened before a (frowning) rock. He lays hold of thorns. He enters his palace, and does not see his wife. There will be evil.

: 据蒺蔾, 乘. , 妻, . Xiàng zhuàn: Jù yú jí lí, chéng gāng yě. rù yú qí gōng, bù jiàn qí qī, bù xiáng yě.

‘He lays hold of thorns:’ - (this is suggested by the position of the line) above the strong (line). ‘He enters his palace, and does not see his wife:’ - this is inauspicious.

young yin young yang changing yang young yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Water
Water
Kǎn [29] Flow; Darkness
Change
: 徐徐, 困, 吝, 终. Jiǔ sì: lái xú xú, kùn yú jīn chē, lìn, yǒu zhōng.

The fourth ‘nine’, undivided shows its subject proceeding very slowly (to help the subject of the first line), who is straitened by the carriage adorned with metal in front of him. There will be occasion for regret, but the end will be good.

: 徐徐, . , . Xiàng zhuàn: Lái xú xú, zhì zài xià yě. suī bù dàng wèi, yǒu yǔ yě.

‘He proceeds very slowly (to help the subject of the first line):’ - his aim is directed to (help) that lower (line). Although he is not in his appropriate place, he and that other will (in the end) be together.

young yin changing yang young yang young yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Wood
Water
Xiè [40] Disentangle; Relief
Change
: 劓刖, 困赤绂, , 用祭祀. Jiǔ wǔ: yì yuè, kùn yú chì fú, nǎi xú yǒu shuō, lì yòng jì sì.

The fifth ‘nine’, undivided, shows its subject with his nose and feet cut off. He is straitened by (his ministers in their) scarlet aprons. He is leisurely in his movements, however, and is satisfied. It will be well for him to be (as sincere) as in sacrificing (to spiritual beings).

: 劓刖, . , . 用祭祀, . Xiàng zhuàn: Yì yuè, zhì wèi dé yě. nǎi xú yǒu shuō, yǐ zhōng zhí yě. lì yòng jì sì, shòu fú yě.

‘His nose and feet are cut off:’ - his aim has not yet been gained. ‘He is leisurely, however, in his movements, and is satisfied:’ - his position is central and (his virtue) is correct. ‘It will be well for him to be (as sincere as) in sacrificing:’ - so shall he receive blessing.

changing yin young yang young yang young yin young yang young yin
I Ching transform
Heaven
Water
Sòng [6] Strife; Contention
Change
: 困葛藟, 臲卼, 悔. 悔, . Shàng liù: kùn yú gé lěi, yú niè wù, yuē dòng huǐ. yǒu huǐ, zhēng jí.

The sixth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject straitened, as if bound with creepers; or n a high and dangerous position, and saying (to himself), 'If I move, I shall repent it.' If he do repent of former errors, there will be good fortune in his going forward.

: 困葛藟, . 悔, , . Xiàng zhuàn: Kùn yú gé lěi, wèi dāng yě. dòng huǐ, yǒu huǐ jí, xíng yě.

‘He is straitened as if bound with creepers: (his spirit and action) are unsuitable.’ (He says), “If I move, I shall repent of it.” And he does repent (of former errors), which leads to good fortune:‘ - so he (now) goes on.

This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin. The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling. We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.

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