In Tai (we see) the little gone and the great come. (It indicates that) there will be good fortune, with progress and success.彖传: 泰, 小往大来, 吉亨. 则是天地交, 而万物通也; 上下交, 而其志同也. 内阳而外阴, 内健而外顺, 内君子而外小人, 君子道长, 小人道消也. Tuàn zhuàn: Tài, xiǎo wǎng dà lái, jí hēng. Zé shì tiān dì jiāo, ér wàn wù tōng yě; shàng xià jiāo, ér qí zhì tóng yě. nèi yáng ér wài yīn, nèi jiàn ér wài shùn, nèi jūn zǐ ér wài xiǎo rén, jūn zǐ dào zhǎng, xiǎo rén dào xiāo yě.
'The little come and the great gone in Tai, and its indication that there will be good fortune with progress and success' show to us heaven and earth in communication with each other, and all things in consequence having free course, and (also) the high and the low, (superiors and inferiors), in communication with one another, and possessed by the same aim. The inner (trigram) is made up of the strong and undivided lines, and the outer of the weak and divided; the inner is (the symbol of) strength, and the outer of docility; the inner (represents) the superior man, and the outer the small man. (Thus) the way of the superior man appears increasing, and that of the small man decreasing.象传: 天地交泰, 后以财成天地之道, 辅相天地之宜, 以左右民. Xiàng zhuàn: Tiān dì jiāo tài, hòu yǐ cái chéng tiān dì zhī dào, fǔ xiàngtiān dì zhī yí, yǐ zuǒ yòu mín.
(The trigrams for) heaven and earth in communication together form Tai. The (sage) sovereign, in harmony with this, fashions and completes (his regulations) after the courses of heaven and earth, and assists the application of the adaptations furnished by them, - in order to benefit the people.
The first ‘nine’, undivided, suggests the idea of grass pulled up, and bringing with it other stalks with whose roots it is connected. Advance (on the part of its subject) will be fortunate.象传: 拔茅征吉, 志在外也. Xiàng zhuàn: Bá máo zhēng jí, zhì zài wài yě.
'The good fortune of advance, (as suggested by the emblem of) the grass pulled up,' arises from the will (of the party intended) being set on what is external to himself.
The second ‘nine’, undivided, shows one who can bear with the uncultivated, will cross the He without a boat, does not forget the distant, and has no (selfish) friendships. Thus does he prove himself acting in accordance with the course of the due Mean.象传: 包荒, 得尚于中行, 以光大也. Xiàng zhuàn: Bāo huāng, dé shàng yú zhōng háng, yǐ guāng dà yě.
'He bears with the uncultivated, and proves himself acting in accordance with the due mean:' - for (his intelligence is) bright and (his capacity is) great.
The third ‘nine’, undivided, shows that, while there is no state of peace that is not liable to be disturbed, and no departure (of evil men) so that they shall not return, yet when one is firm and correct, as he realizes the distresses that may arise, he will commit no error. There is no occasion for sadness at the certainty (of such recurring changes); and in this mood the happiness (of the present) may be (long) enjoyed.象传: 无往不复, 天地际也. Xiàng zhuàn: Wú wǎng bù fù, tiān dì jì yě.
'There is no going away so that there shall not be a return' refers to this as the point where the interaction of heaven and earth takes place.
The fourth ‘six’, divided, shows its subject fluttering (down) - not relying on his own rich resources, but calling in his neighbors. (They all come) not as having received warning, but in the sincerity (of their hearts).象传: 翩翩不富, 皆失实也. 不戒以孚, 中心愿也. Xiàng zhuàn: Piān piān bù fù, jiē shī shí yě. bù jiè yǐ fú, zhōng xīn yuàn yě.
'He comes fluttering (down), not relying on his own rich resources:' - both he and his neighbors are out of their real (place where they are). 'They have not received warning, but (come) in the sincerity (of their hearts):' - this is what they have desired in the core of their hearts.
The fifth ‘six’, divided, reminds us of (king) Di-yi's (rule about the) marriage of his younger sister. By such a course there is happiness and there will be great good fortune.象传: 以祉元吉, 中以行也. Xiàng zhuàn: Yǐ zhǐ yuán jí, zhōngyǐ xíng yě.
'By such a course there is happiness, and there will be great good fortune:' - (the subject of the line) employs the virtue proper to his central position to carry his wishes into effect.
The sixth ‘six’, divided, shows us the city wall returned into the moat. It is not the time to use the army. (The subject of the line) may, indeed, announce his orders to the people of his own city; but however correct and firm he may be, he will have cause for regret.象传: 城复于隍, 其命乱也. Xiàng zhuàn: Chéng fù yú huáng, qí mìng luàn yě.
'The city wall returned back into the moat' shows how the (governmental) orders have (long) been in disorder.
This translation of the YiJing classic text uses the original Chinese including the 象传 Xiàng zhuàn commentary converted to modern simplified characters and pinyin.
The English translation is based on William Legge (1899) ➚ which is now out of copyright. We have changed some wording and converted to American spelling.
We hope to replace this with a more modern translation.
In the first few paragraphs each gua is described. The name of the gua (hexagram) is followed by the two trigrams that make it up (lake, mountain, fire, water, earth, heaven, thunder and wind). Each gua has a controlling element (earth, fire, water, metal and wood). After this information there are three related guas. The Opposite gua is the one where all yang is changed to yin and yin to yang - it is usually opposite in meaning. The Inverse gua is the gua with the order inverted so first is last and vice versa. The mutual gua is a more complex combination and re-ordering of the internal trigrams making up the gua. Then the association of the gua to the annual cycle is shown - this is the Chinese lunar month number (not Western month). The controlling or host yao is considered the most important line in the gua and is highlighted in the hexagram.
The main description for the hexagram is then followed by a section for each of the six possible changing lines which indicate the transformation into another, related gua. The text uses ‘nine’ to refer to a yang line and ‘six’ for a yin line. The pure yin and yang hexagrams have, however, a different text structure as they are so important.
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