The Emperor of all China
Ming Emperor Xuande with his imperial eunuchs. 1425-35. Image by unknown court artist available under a Creative Commons license ➚
In the sections covering the long history of China, the Emperor has been frequently mentioned without describing how the Imperial system of China worked. This section looks at the system in broad terms ignoring the many variations that occurred over thousands of years. Although China has been a republic for one hundred years the institution of Emperor remains a vital concept to understand.
Emperor 皇帝 huáng dì
Like so many Chinese concepts there is no direct translation to Western terms and concepts. Talk of empire immediately conjures up thoughts of the brutality of conquerors such as the Roman Emperors. At the other end of the spectrum there are constitutional monarchies as in Britain where the monarch has no power. The Chinese conception was always different, there has been always a ritualistic and religious aspect. Perhaps thinking of the Pope as the head of the Catholic church has some merit as the Emperor has some paternalistic duty of care over his people. He should also lead an exemplary life of virtue to act as a template for his subjects to follow. Only a few emperors succumbed to the temptation of ruling as total autocrats - making decisions on their own and in their own interest. The role was always a peaceful and not a military one, the emperor at official engagements never wore military uniform or carried a weapon.
Closest to the Emperor was a large phalanx of eunuchs, normally numbered in thousands. They were his personal servants to carry out his wishes and maintain his welfare. Eunuchs controlled access to the Emperor and often became powerful political advisers. There was a strict hierarchy of eunuchs and only very few of them became rich and powerful, most remained menial servants.
Then there were the officials who provided the Imperial administration (The 内务府 Nèi wù fǔ) . Throughout most of two thousand years these have been selected on scholastic merit not on personal patronage. The highest ranked officials (members of the Hanlin Academy) would be employed as tutors to the Imperial family. Although posts were not hereditary there were families that produced a good number of scholars who passed the Imperial examinations and became senior officials.
The Imperial family formed another important faction. Imperial patronage appointed them to positions at court. The princes were potential emperors in waiting and gathered their own supporters and were appointed to posts (often as provincial governors) to gather experience of rule and were judged on their success or otherwise.
Portrait of Emperor Taizu of Ming Dynasty China by palace painter, Image available under a Creative Commons license ➚.
Son of Heaven 天子 tiān zǐ
Crucial to the Imperial system of China is the concept of ‘Son of Heaven’. It is a tricky term to translate as the Chinese ‘heaven’ is not the same as a Abrahamic ‘heaven’ perhaps ‘cosmos’ would be better, a more correct translation is perhaps ‘rightful emperor’. The Emperor was considered a descendent of the 上帝 Shàng Dì the divine ruler. A traditional dynastic line traces all Emperors back to the Yellow Emperor 黄帝 huáng dì (although the family tree has to take some bizarre turns to accommodate them all).
China for thousands of years considered herself the center of the world both culturally and geographically. The Emperor was the sole conduit between the world of men and the cosmos. The concept did not admit other rulers to be at the same level as himself, he was at the top of the power pyramid, not just of China but the whole world - there could never be two Sons of Heaven.
He performed the ancient, traditional rites to the heavens and he obeyed their demands just as a son obeys the father in Confucian doctrine. Should the Emperor disobey heaven he loses the Mandate of Heaven and rebellion is to be expected and moreover justified. Chief among the rites were those honoring the ancestors. As the pinnacle of the Confucian power pyramid the Emperor's veneration of his antecedents and heaven was paramount. As the father figure of the nation he led the New Year festival at the Temple of Heaven and then set the agricultural year going by plowing three ritual furrows with a yellow plow near the Temple of Agriculture each Spring. The special variety of rice that was sown then produced the offerings to be used at the harvest ritual. As the only link with the heavens these rites were held to be of the utmost importance. He personally marked the finalist's papers in the Imperial examinations that would lead to their appointment as high officials.
Symbolically the Emperor was represented by the five clawed Imperial Dragon - a dragon is powerful but benign in Chinese mythology, not evil.
Mandate of Heaven 天命 tiān mìng
The Emperor rules only so long as he has the support of 'heaven'. The end of the mandate of heaven may be signaled by famines, floods, earthquakes, eclipses and other natural events. He can also lose it by ruling despotically without concern for the people he both rules and serves. For more on this please see Mandate of Heaven section.
The normal greeting to the Emperor was 皇上 Huáng shang roughly ‘Imperial majesty’. In his absence the Emperor was often referred to as 万岁爷 Wàn suì yé ‘Lord for countless years’ particularly by his eunuchs. His official title was 天子 Tiān zǐ ‘son of heaven’ . On the other-hand the Emperor would refer to himself as 朕 Zhèn or when addressing an audience as 寡人 Guǎ rén ‘morally lacking person’ in a gesture of humility.
The names of Chinese Emperors is a common cause of confusion because they were so many of them.
In Europe the tradition is to stick with the same name throughout life, not so in China. Ordinary people as well as the Imperial family often changed their name. An important event in life was a typical reason for the change. A relatively recent example is former leader Hua Guofeng who was born as Su Zhu, he took the name Hua Guofeng to protest his resistance to the Japanese Occupation. The Republican leader Sun Yatsen went by many names ➚ during his life and is known in China chiefly by the name Sun Zhongshan. Poets would have a literary name (a sort of nom de plume) as well as their given name.
However the situation for Imperial names is more complex. The unchanging bedrock was an Emperor's family and given name. In the case of the great Tang dynasty Emperor Taizong, he was born Li Shimin (李世民 Lǐ Shì mín). ‘Li’ is the family name of all the Tang Emperors, his forename was ‘Shimin’ (given name 名号 míng hào). On accession to the Imperial throne he took the reign name of 贞观 Zhēnguān. The reign name (年号 nián hào) is a title for a period of time not a personal name. Years were recorded by the year number within a reign, so 丙寅 唐贞观 would be the 13th year of the Tang Zhenguan period of Emperor Taizong's reign (627CE+13 = 640CE). [Note that the year uses the special 60 year form of numbers.] Particularly in the Han dynasty the reign name was changed every few years to mark a particular event or campaign. Later on, in the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Emperors used the same name throughout their entire reign.
In the Qing dynasty a convention was adopted that all children of the same generation (brothers, cousins, second cousins etc.) would receive the same first part of the name. So Puyi 溥仪 had a brother Pujie 溥杰 half-brother Puren 溥任 while Puyi's father Zaifeng 载沣 had brothers Zaitao 载云 and Zaichun 载沣 (The emperor Tongzhi 同治). This allowed the strict Confucian rules on seniority of generations to be easily determined. The formal Qing dynastic family name was 爱新觉罗 Ai xīn jué luó
As well as reign names an Emperor was given a temple name 庙号 miào hào on his death. This name would posthumously proclaim the Emperor's achievements, and for Li Shimin the name chosen was Taizong 太宗 tài zōng (meaning great clan or purpose or supreme ancestor) which in his case is the name by which he is best known. It should also be warned that old history books use other romanizations for his name, in Wade Giles his name is spelled T'ai-tsung.
Auspicious names were re-used over the centuries, perhaps chosen to bring an echo of a glorious reign long ago, so there is an Emperor Taizong of the Song as well as the Tang dynasties. There are five Emperors who chose the name Wudi to bask in the achievements of the great Han Emperor Wudi.
With so many names to choose from, it is not surprising that there is no universal rule for referring to Emperors. For Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan we use his given name; for Qing Emperor Qianlong his reign name while for Tang Emperor Taizong we use his temple name.
Empress and concubines
Contrary to popular belief there was only one Empress, but the Emperor would also have many concubines, often hundreds if not thousands. This system ensured there were plenty of sons for the Emperor to choose from as his successor. If the Empress bore him sons they were the most likely candidates, but in the early times of disease and misadventure the continuation of the dynasty required many alternatives to be available just in case. A son born to a concubine received the same status as the Empress's sons. In 1900 the Emperor is said to have had 150 concubines, the Emperor had to visit the Empress and bow to her once every five days.
The Confucian doctrine of due deference to the family hierarchy requires that a person is always junior to his parents and must obey them in all things. This made the Dowager Empress (the mother of the Emperor even if a concubine) immensely powerful, particularly for Emperors in their youth who must obey their every wish.
There was only one female Emperor who ruled in her own right and that was the extraordinary Tang Empress Wu Zetian.
Hall of Central Harmony (Zhong hedian) at the Forbidden City, Beijing
An Emperor could not be succeeded by an uncle, this rule helped save China from turmoil as the Emperor usually had many brothers. He would not usually be succeeded by a brother, but there have been notable exceptions. The rule was that a son, or failing that a nephew should succeed him - he must come from the next generation. When a nephew was chosen the Emperor's father was effectively sidelined and was subject to his son's rule. This created great difficulties particularly at the end of the Qing dynasty when a series of emperors died young.
It was Plato who wrote that Socrates believed the ideal form of government is not democracy but benign dictatorship under a Philosopher King ➚. The leader rules absolutely but only in the best interests of the people. The ruler ➚ surrounds himself with wise advisers and chooses the best policy. He can make strategic decisions for the long-term without worrying about short-term unpopularity. This was the system that the Jesuits believed that they had found when they arrived in China in the early 17th century. Great European thinkers such as Leibniz heard these reports and embraced the Chinese system of government as the most enlightened in the world.
The weakness of such a system is that should an emperor not act benignly he is much less easy to remove from office than in a democracy, it usually took a long, bloody rebellion to end a dynasty.
View of the Forbidden City, Beijing from the peak of Jingshan Hill
A key feature of the Chinese model of Empire is for a heavily centralized state with very limited local autonomy. The Imperial center made all the appointments even to a very local level and administered the finances. Administrative posts were held for short fixed terms and performance monitored. Imperial edicts written in vermillion ink reserved for the Emperor's own hand received utmost priority. Each edict ended with the portentious statement ‘Tremble and Obey’. To support the system, fast communication to all points in the Empire was needed. Horses were held in readiness at relay stations so that an Imperial edict could travel over 100 miles [161 kms] each day. Strict rules applied to the maintenance of roads to maintain this rapid communication. Elsewhere in the world mail delivery was measured in weeks and months not days. The government could then react quickly to events in remote regions of China. The turmoil and conflict that was prevalent when provinces broke away has led to a strong correlation in the Chinese mind between central control and prosperity. This legacy of dynastic times is important to understand when viewing China today which still has a rigid central system of control.
Very rarely did the Emperor emerge from the Imperial Palace, when he did the roads were cleared of all spectators as it was not considered proper for his subjects to so much as glance at the Emperor.
Emperor Qianlong's Pleasure during Snowy Weather. c. 1736-1738. From Chiumei Ho: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong, London 2004. Painting by Giuseppe Castiglione ➚ (1688?1766). Available under a Creative Commons license ➚.
Censors in China
From the early years of Chinese history it was realized that without checks and balances corruption would take hold and bring ruin. One approach was to appoint the district administrators from far away and for a fixed term of office. The official could not then build up a local network of corrupt contacts and appoint his own family to posts. The second and more powerful mechanism was a branch of government to oversee administration. They would check that officials were performing their duties correctly. There 'censors' were not permanent positions, it was usual for a high official would serve for a limited term as a censor and then move on to other duties. Censors had complete freedom of speech and could criticize the Emperor.
Just as important was the ability for an official to write to the Emperor suggesting a new policy or criticizing a current one. These are unfortunately translated in English as ‘memorial’ 章表 zhāng biǎo while ‘letter’ or ‘essay’ would be more appropriate. These essays were often policy proposals and may result in the loss of their job if an emperor was sensitive to the criticism, but on the other hand the essay may lead to an opportunity to lead the implementation of the new policy.
Tang Emperor Taizong explained the importance of the system in a note to his sons:
“The emperor, living in his palace, is blocked from direct access to information. For fear that faults might be left untold or defects unattended, he must set up various devices to elicit loyal suggestions and listen attentively to sincere advice...” (Chinese Civilization - A source book pp.113-144).
Important throughout Chinese history has been a repeated cycle of events that has marked out many a dynasty's rise and decline.
- Foundation of the new dynasty by military might.
- Period of wide ranging reforms under the new emperor.
- When the first emperor of the dynasty dies there is usually a conflict for succession amongst his close relatives.
- Long period of consolidation with increased prosperity.
- Gradual erosion of vitality through powerful vested interests (eunuchs, officials, Empresses).
- Internal division and loss of power of Emperor.
- Decline and fall of the dynasty by rebellion.
Generalizations like this almost always fail to fit particular dynasties. In two noted cases the Qin and Sui dynasties were both short-lived 'one man dynasties' where a new family took the throne after the death of the reforming vigor had died with the founder. The succeeding dynasties, Han and Tang respectively, retained many of the reforms of their predecessors.
Portrait of Puyi (Xuantong Emperor) (1906-1967) Image available under a Creative Commons license ➚.
End of Empire
Puyi as the Emperor Xuantong (宣统帝) was the last Emperor of China. He was Emperor from the age of two in 1908 until he was forced out of the Forbidden City in 1924. From 1911 until 1924 the Republic of China allowed the Emperor to continue in title only with no power to rule the country. For all about his fascinating life read the Last Emperor section.
President or Emperor
When the Republic of China was founded in 1911 the long Imperial traditions were not so easily shaken off. The ‘Republican’ leader Yuan Shikai went on to attempt to form a new dynasty in the early days of the Republic in 1916. It is easy to see that Mao Zedong fits the bill as a dynastic founder - he overthrew his predecessors and brought in wide ranging reforms.
In many ways the Imperial system lives on in China, and shows no signs of going away. There is general deference to the government and to the President in particular. He is still seen as working in China's best interests and as the nation's father figure. He governs by listening to advice from experts and then autocratically imposing it. China is unified and centrally controlled with surprisingly little variation among the 1,404 million inhabitants. There is a general feeling of solidarity between all the people as one big family with the President at its head. Much has changed but the relationships remain the same.
Since Mao, the Chairmen and Presidents of China have retained a certain Imperial aura. They are not elected by the people and act in much the same way that an idealized Emperor should have ruled: benignly to further the best interests of the people. All presidents have to belong to one clan: the Communist Party and are loyal to clan members just as in a dynasty.
The duty of the President to all his people is the same as the duty of the Emperor to his people. This is why the Imperial analogy is still appropriate today and one reason why democratic elections for President remain unlikely. Rather than being chosen by accident of birth a President is chosen by his senior colleagues just as high officials would advise the Emperor on the wisest choice of heir.
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