Chinese Events and Festivals month calendar

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Chinese Festivals

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There are many, joyous Chinese Festivals that are still marked each year including Chinese New Year, Qing Ming, Dragon Boat, Chinese Valentines, National Day and many more that are described on this page. A number of the festivals follow the old Chinese calendar rather than the Western (Gregorian) calendar. The old calendar was based on the moon so just as with the Christian Easter, some festivals fall on different days each year. The Chinese jié qì solar calendar has been used for farming as the date of sowing, reaping needs to be in step with the sun rather than the moon. For an explanation of how the Chinese calendar works please visit our Chinese Calendar section for details. In recent years some festivals have been moved to a Monday or Friday to give a three day weekend. The mixture of moveable and fixed, modern and ancient create a complex pattern of public holidays.

Festivals reflect the mixed religious traditions in China. Some of the festivals honor more than one religion, others mark the passage of the seasons. Back in dynastic history there were no weekends or days of rest, so festivals were the only holidays and that is why there are so important. All these dates are for the current year (2018) or next year . The festivals are shown in order of occurrence over a full 12 months and is automatically updated.

Thursday 21st June 2018 - Summer Solstice (Xiàzhì 夏至) [Jieqi fortnight]

Tuesday 26th June 2018

Rain Festival (Yǔ jié )

Rain is essential for crops and another minor festival, the Rain Festival, like the Dragon Boat festival, is associated with rain on the 13th of the fifth month. Ceremonies used to seek just the quantity of rain, not too little and not too much. Like St. Swithin's day , the absence of rain on this day may presage a drought. There are many gods of rain and legends about them. As rain is associated with dragons they feature prominently in such tales including the Jinlong Si Dawang (Golden Dragon King). It is not a public holiday.

Saturday 7th July 2018 - Moderate heat (Xiǎoshǔ 小暑) [Jieqi fortnight]

Friday 13th July 2018

Half Year Festival (Bàn nián jié )

Half way through the lunar calendar year is on the 1st day of the 6th month, and it is a time to reflect on the year so far. Mainly celebrated in southern China, the Half Year Festival is in places treated as an echo of the New Year Festival, with fire crackers, zong zi (glutinous rice) and family get-togethers. According to legend in Jiashanwu Village near Hangzhou a long drought was ended by the efforts of a mysterious old man. It is a minor festival and not a public holiday.

Wednesday 18th July 2018

Clothes Drying Day (Shài yī jié )

As the sun’s heat reaches its full power this minor festival is set aside to lay out anything that needs drying in the sun. Clothes; bedding; papers; grain are some of the things that can benefit from a thorough airing and drying in the sun. Clothes Drying Day takes place on the sixth day of sixth month. The legend is that the Dragon King, ruler of water, spent this day drying its scales. Another tale is that it was the day when the Buddhist scriptures that were being carried into China in the 'Journey to the West' were laid out to dry; and so temples used to bring out the Classic scriptures for a good airing. It is a minor festival and not a public holiday.

Monday 23rd July 2018 - Great heat (Dàshǔ 大暑) [Jieqi fortnight]

Wednesday 1st August 2018

Army day (Jiàn jūn jié )

A recently instituted half-day holiday for military personnel is held on the 1st August each year. The date commemorates the Nanchang uprising of August 1st 1927 when the Communist forces for the first time formed an army unit that routed the Guomindang that occupied the city of Nanchang. Many of the Communist military leaders went on to take part in the Long March and the establishment of the Peoples Republic.

Tuesday 7th August 2018 - Autumn begins (Lìqiū 立秋) [Jieqi fortnight]

Saturday 11th August 2018

Ghost Gate Opens (Guǐ mén kāi )

The seventh month of the traditional Chinese calendar is associated with ghosts. The Hungry Ghost festival in the middle of the seventh month is the main festival but some people also mark the start of the month - Ghost Gate. The ghost month is considered unlucky, spirits wander around for the whole month and so new projects and enterprises should not be started. One superstition of relevance is to avoid sticking chopsticks vertically into rice as this invites in the ghosts. It is a minor festival and not a public holiday.

Friday 17th August 2018

Chinese Valentine’s Day (Qīxìjié )

This festival has its origins as a festival for women, honoring Niulang, a weaver, who was separated by the gods from her husband, a cowherd. She spent this one dry night with her husband by following a bridge made by magpies. The husband and wife are the stars Vega and Altair and the bridge is the Milky Way. It is held on the 7th day of the 7th lunar month and nowadays it is marked by exchanging gifts between sweethearts. On the preceding day people used to look to the future with various customs that foretold their future. A number of traditional games tested the dexterity of girls in deference to Niulang - the skilled weaver. It was also said to be the day when the Queen Mother of West visited the Emperor. In some regions it is also associated with lanterns and guiding spirits as it falls within the Ghost month. Nowadays is more like the western Valentine's Day - couples give each other presents to show their enduring affection.

Dates : Mon Aug 28 2017  Fri Aug 17 2018  Wed Aug 7 2019  

Thursday 23rd August 2018 - End of heat (Chǔshǔ 处暑) [Jieqi fortnight]

Saturday 25th August 2018

Hungry Ghost (Yúlánpén 盂兰)

This festival is held on the 15th day (full moon) of the 7th lunar (ghost) month. It is also known as the Mid-year festival ( zhōng yuán jié). Traditionally the sufferings of ancestors are appeased by making offerings of food or incense at the ancestral shrine. Prayers are said for spirits who have no families to venerate them. Paper flags are hung over doorways to keep out the hungry ghosts.

Dates : Tue Sep 5 2017  Sat Aug 25 2018  Thu Aug 15 2019  

Sunday 2nd September 2018

Birthday of Zhuge Liang (Zhū gě wǔ hóu dàn chén 诸葛)

During the Three Kingdoms period Zhuge Liang , the loyal and capable chancellor of the Shu Han kingdom stands out as an example of a virtuous life. His birthday is marked on the 23rd of 7th lunar month in the traditional calendar. He was nick-named ‘crouching dragon’ for his adept military strategies. To mark this day Chinese sky lanterns , traditionally said to have been invented by Zhuge Liang, are lit and allowed to drift into the sky. It is a minor festival and not a public holiday.

Saturday 8th September 2018 - White Dew (Báilù 白露) [Jieqi fortnight]

Monday 10th September 2018

Teachers day (Jiào shī jié )

Teachers have their own special day when students show respect and give presents to them. It is not a holiday and is held on 10th September each year. It is not entirely clear why this date was chosen, but it is usually near the start of the new school year after the summer holidays.

Sunday 23rd September 2018 - Autumnal Equinox (Qiūfēn 秋分) [Jieqi fortnight]

Monday 24th September 2018

Mid Autumn Festival (Zhōngqiūjié )

Teacup media audio podcast by Laszlo Montgomery.
Mid-Autumn Festival
Laszlo podcast

The Autumn Moon Festival takes place at full moon in the 8th lunar month (15th day), it marks the end of harvest. Lanterns are lit and moon cakes are cooked and consumed in large numbers. It celebrates Chang'e the goddess of the moon and particular the romance with the archer god Houyi. Traditionally, spirits of the dead came forth to feast on the fruits of summer harvest. People would climb hills and mountains to watch the rising of the full moon with the greeting Kàn yuè liang ‘Look at the bright moon’!

Moon festival, food, cake
Moon cake for the Mid Autumn (Moon) Festival

Dates : Wed Oct 4 2017  Mon Sep 24 2018  Fri Sep 13 2019  

Friday 28th September 2018

Confucius’s Birthday (Modern) (Jì kǒng dà diǎn )

Traditionally the birthday of the great sage and philosopher Confucius was celebrated on the 27th of the 8th Lunar month particularly at his birthplace of Qufu in Shandong. It is now tied to a specific day, the 28th September each year.

Monday 1st October 2018

National day (Guó qìng jié )

National day marks the founding of the Peoples Republic on 1st October 1949. There are often three days of public holiday in all, shifted to give a continuous five day holiday when combined with a weekend.

Monday 8th October 2018 - Cold Dew (Hánlù 寒露) [Jieqi fortnight]

Wednesday 17th October 2018

Chong Yang Festival (Zhòngyángjié )

On the 9th day of the 9th month people used to take to high ground and fly all sorts of kites as a way of appeasing the spirits. It follows the traditional story of Huan Jing of the Han dynasty, who was told to move to high ground to escape disaster. In Chinese numerology 9 is a strong yang number and is generally inauspicious; so this day had to be treated with respect. Food was laid out to calm the spirits of the ancestors. As chrysanthemums are usually in flower, chrysanthemum wine is often drunk and petals collected to flavor the next year's batch. Because nine jiǔ sounds like forever jiǔ it has now become associated with elderly people and since 1989 has also been celebrated as ‘Seniors Day’.

Dates : Sat Oct 28 2017  Wed Oct 17 2018  Mon Oct 7 2019  

Tuesday 23rd October 2018 - Frost descends (Shuāngjiàng 霜降) [Jieqi fortnight]
Wednesday 7th November 2018 - Winter begins (Lìdōng 立冬) [Jieqi fortnight]

Sunday 11th November 2018

Singles day (Guāng gùn jié )

A very recent special day, is ‘Single's Day’ when young , single people buy themselves presents. The festival started among men at Nanjing University in the 1990s and has caught on rapidly in cities throughout China and amongst single women too. The choice of date is based on the fact that 11.11 has four single 'ones' in it. It is now a popular day to declare love and propose marriage. It is not a national holiday.

Thursday 22nd November 2018 - Light snow (Xiǎoxuě 小雪) [Jieqi fortnight]
Friday 7th December 2018 - Heavy snow (Dàxuě 大雪) [Jieqi fortnight]

Thursday 13th December 2018

Nanjing Massacre memorial day (Nán jīng dà tú shā 屠杀)

In 2014 a new memorial day was inaugurated to commemorate the many who died when the Japanese invaded Nanjing on this day in 1938. It is not a public holiday.

Saturday 22nd December 2018

Winter Solstice (Dōngzhì )

Dongzhi marks the important point of the mid Winter solstice (December 22nd or more rarely 21st), the shortest day, and is traditionally a time for eating rice balls or dumplings after offerings have been made to the kitchen god. This festival like Qingming is tied to the sun rather than the moon.

Dates : Fri Dec 22 2017  Sat Dec 22 2018  Sun Dec 22 2019  

Tuesday 25th December 2018

Christmas day (Shèng dàn lǎo rén )

In recent years the Western celebration of Christmas on 25th December has had an increasing impact. This is chiefly an excuse to buy presents for children in the cities. Shengdan Laoren is a transliteration of ‘Santa’ as ‘sheng:’ saintly ‘dan:’ birth followed by ‘laoren:’ old man. As Santa is dressed in lucky red this greatly adds to his appeal. To wish someone ‘Merry Christmas’ you can say shèng dàn kuài lè. It is not an official holiday.


The following festivals are all in next year: 2019

Tuesday 1st January 2019

New Years day (Yuán dàn )

When China adopted the Western, Gregorian calendar on the founding of the Republic of China in 1911, the 'Western' beginning of the year January 1st began to be marked as a festival just as elsewhere in the world. Since 2008 it has become a public holiday lasting 3 days. Sometimes the holiday is 'shifted' to give an extended weekend.

Saturday 5th January 2019 - Moderate cold (Xiǎohán 小寒) [Jieqi fortnight]

Sunday 13th January 2019

Laba Festival (Làbā jié )

Laba congee is traditionally eaten on the Laba festival. It is held on the 8th day of the twelfth lunar month and is associated with the Buddhist festival marking the Buddha's enlightenment. The festival is observed mostly in northern China and not much in the south. It is not a public holiday.

Dates : Wed Jan 24 2018  Sun Jan 13 2019  Thu Jan 2 2020  

Sunday 20th January 2019 - Severe cold (Dàhán 大寒) [Jieqi fortnight]
Monday 4th February 2019 - Spring begins (Lìchūn 立春) [Jieqi fortnight]

Tuesday 5th February 2019

Chinese New Year - Spring Festival (Chūnjié )

We now have a whole page dedicated to describe just the New Year Festival - this entry had become too long! So here is just a very quick summary.

New Year is the main annual festival in China determined by the old Chinese calendar. It falls on the second new moon after the winter solstice, so it is falls towards the end of January or early February. For at least 2,000 years it has been a time for all families to get together, often traveling huge distances. Brightly colored papers and paper cut designs are displayed everywhere often carrying the character ‘fu’ for good fortune. The traditional lion dance is often seen in public festivities. The festival lasts a whole week of public holiday (Feb 15th to Feb 21st in 2018) and during this time everyone tries to be on their best behavior to set the tone for the whole year.

Spring Festival, Shenzhen, market, people, lantern
Buying supplies for the Chinese New Year Festival, Shenzhen Copyright © Dreamstime see image license

There are large firework displays in the cities. The ancestors are given due reverence at the festival. When guests arrive they should bring along food or a gift; these can take the form of packets of 'lucky paper money' in red envelopes. Fish and Jiaozi (dumplings) are often eaten, the character for fish yu sounds the same as the character yu meaning 'surplus; abundance' so a dish of fish has a lucky connotation. The entrance to a house is decorated with two couplets written in calligraphy on red paper on either side of the entrance. Traditional fairs are held outside temples selling all sorts of small gifts and decorations during the holiday.

Dates : Fri Feb 16 2018  Tue Feb 5 2019  Sat Jan 25 2020  

Tuesday 19th February 2019

Lantern Festival (Yuánxiāojié )

The Lantern festival is on the first full moon after the New Year and marks the very end of the Spring Festival. Lanterns are lit and in places very long paper dragons parade the streets. The lanterns lit the way for the ancestral spirits to go home to their tombs after joining the family for the festivities. Great creativity was used in lantern design, which can include moving parts; some towns had riddles painted on them to entertain the people. Tangyuan (glutinous rice balls) are eaten and fir branches placed above doors. The traditional lion dance was originally tied to just this festival but now are seen more generally throughout the year. In the countryside diseases were removed by making a procession out of the village, with many firecrackers scaring away and taking the illness with it. Children, often in scary masks, used to put on little stage shows and pantomimes.

lantern festival, festival , people, children
Celebrating Lantern Festival, Liuzhou, Guangxi Copyright © Dreamstime see image license

Dates : Fri Mar 2 2018  Tue Feb 19 2019  Sat Feb 8 2020  

Tuesday 19th February 2019 - Spring showers (Yǔshuǐ 雨水) [Jieqi fortnight]
Wednesday 6th March 2019 - Insects waken (Jīngzhí 惊蛰) [Jieqi fortnight]

Friday 8th March 2019

Blue Dragon Festival (Lóng tái tóu )

The double second (2nd day of 2nd lunar month) marks the first tentative signs of Spring. The name ‘Blue Dragon’ reflects the tradition of waking the dragons that control the rains, Longtaitou literally means ‘dragon raise head’. It usually occurs around the time of Jīngzhí in the lichuan calendar which marks the stirring of insects; originally fumigation was carried out to kill off the emerging insects. The festival is now celebrated by cleaning the house, having a haircut, eating popcorn, pancakes and noodles. Zhonghe Festival () is another ancient festival traditionally held on the day before (1st of the 2nd lunar month) so nowadays the two are celebrated together. It is not a public holiday.

Friday 8th March 2019

Womens day (Guó jì fù nǔ jié )

Traditional Chinese calendar

Traditional Chinese calendar

Culture

The traditional Chinese calendar is still used to determine the date of some festivals, and in particular the most important one - Chinese New Year. Our calendar shows each month with both Chinese and Western calendar information together with all the important anniversaries occurring on each day and the whole year.

On the foundation of the Peoples Republic in 1949 the 8th March was designated Women's Day with a half or full day's holiday for women in China. The date was chosen because it was originally the last Saturday in February but this was moved in 1914 to a Sunday in Russia and has stayed there ever since.

Tuesday 12th March 2019

Arbor or Tree planting day (Zhí shù jié )

To make up for widespread deforestation and keep China well stocked with trees, on 12th March people go out and plant trees. It is not a holiday and was instituted as late as 1981.

Monday 18th March 2019

Flower Festival (Huā zhāo jié )

The traditional Flower Festival is held on the twelfth day of the second lunar month. The great Tang Empress Wu Zetian is associated with this minor festival when the birthday of the Flower God is celebrated. It roughly marks the time of the emergence of the first flowers of Spring. It is also a good day to plant up the garden ready for summer.

Thursday 21st March 2019 - Vernal Equinox (Chūnfēn 春分) [Jieqi fortnight]

Monday 25th March 2019

Birthday of Guanyin (Guàn yīn dàn )

Hainan, Guanyin, Sanya, deity
Statue of Guanyin (Guanshiyin or Avalokitesvara), Goddess of Mercy, Sanya, Hainan

The most revered of Buddhist Bodhisattvas is Guanyin , the Goddess of Mercy who intercedes on behalf of any who pray to her. Her birthday is traditionally marked by a minor festival on the 19th of the second lunar month. One of the holiest places sacred to her is on Putuo Island, Zhejiang where there is a tall statue looking out East over the ocean.

Thursday 4th April 2019

Cold Food Festival (Hánshí Jié 寒食节)

Cold Food day commemorates the story of Jie Zitui a loyal and humble servant at the time of the Spring and Autumn Period. The servant is supposed to have cut off part of his own thigh to offer sustenance to his starving master. Jie Zitui shunned rewards and fled to a mountain with his mother, he was pursued by the angry prince and was only put off burning down Jie's house by a pleading poem written in blood. To mark the event no fires are lit and all food is served cold. More practically it marks the time when the heating fires used over the winter are put out and the all the ashes cleared away - so there is no fire available for cooking. It is a minor festival held on the eve of Qing Ming . As the events took place in Shanxi province it is mainly there that the festival is celebrated.

Friday 5th April 2019

Bright and Clear Festival (Qīngmíng )

Traditionally the family tomb is cleaned and swept on Qing Ming day with fresh offerings laid out for the ancestors. This festival is anchored to the solar year rather than lunar year and so always falls between April 4th to 6th. It marks the start of Spring and is associated with kite flying. It has similarities to the Christian Easter Spring festival in that eggs are prepared and eaten. In some areas boys used to wear willow wreathes on their heads to summon rain for the growing season.

Dates : Thu Apr 5 2018  Fri Apr 5 2019  Sat Apr 4 2020  

Sunday 7th April 2019

Shangsi Festival (Shàngsìjié )

Celebrated on the 3rd day of the 3rd Lunar month, Shangsi was traditionally a day for cleaning the house and going away on an outing. It is not an official holiday in China. The festival marks the birthday of the Queen Mother of the West (Xi Wangmu), a leading Daoist deity and is also known as the Banquet of Peaches of Immortality. The day is associated with many folk beliefs to do with the opening of portals between the living and the dead. The founding Yellow Emperor is also believed to have had his birthday on this day. Sticky rice cakes called baba 粑粑 are sometimes eaten.

Dates : Wed Apr 18 2018  Sun Apr 7 2019  Thu Mar 26 2020  

Saturday 13th April 2019

Water Splashing Festival (Pō shuǐ jié )

The Dai people of Yunnan people have great fun getting very wet on April 13th each year. There are very many festivals specific to particular minority people, this is one of the best known through widely seen documentaries.

Friday 19th April 2019

Birthday of the God of Wealth (Zhào gōngmíng )

God of Money, poster
Chinese Lunar New Year money god poster in Hong Kong. Image by Mk2010 available under a Creative Commons license

If you want to become more prosperous then making the appropriate offerings to the God of Wealth (Zhao Gongming) or God of Money (Cai Shen) on his birthday could do the trick. This birthday is marked on the 15th day of the third lunar month of the traditional calendar. He is often depicted with an iron club and riding a black tiger. There are various conflicting legends concerning his life which dates back before the Qin dynasty. It is a minor festival and not a public holiday.

Saturday 20th April 2019 - Corn Rain (Gǔyǔ 谷雨) [Jieqi fortnight]

Wednesday 1st May 2019

Labor day (Láo dòng jié )

A modern international holiday to mark the toil of workers takes place on 1st May. It is a one day holiday reflecting the socialist/communist history of the PRC. The new festivals like Labor Day introduced since the PRC was founded have gradually given way to the traditional ones, three whole days used to be allocated but this has been reduced to one day since 2008.

Saturday 4th May 2019

Youth Day (Qīng nián jié )

Commemorates the activity of young people on May 4th 1919 that helped create the Republic of China. It also marks the foundation of the influential May 4th movement. It is not a public holiday.

Monday 6th May 2019 - Summer begins (Lìxià Summer 立夏) [Jieqi fortnight]

Monday 20th May 2019

I Love You Day (Wǔ èr líng )

Rather like Single's day the day 5.20 (20th May) has become an excuse among the young for another Valentine's day. It is all because the number 520 in Chinese can sound vaguely like 爱伱 wǒ ài nǐ 'I love you'. So if you can't wait until Valentine's day there is now another day to pledge your love and get engaged. Only popular in cities.

Tuesday 21st May 2019 - Corn Forms (Xiǎomǎn 小满) [Jieqi fortnight]

Saturday 1st June 2019

Childrens day (Liù yī ér tóng jié )

A recent holiday specifically for children under 14 was created under the PRC to be held each year on 1st June. Admission to cinemas is free and presents are given.

Thursday 6th June 2019 - Corn in Ear (Mángzhòng 芒种) [Jieqi fortnight]

Friday 7th June 2019

Dragon Boat Festival (Duānwǔjié )

Dragon boat festival, Foshan, Guangdong, people
A dragon boat race at Foshan, Guangdong. 2011 Copyright © Dreamstime see image license

The highpoint of the sun's journey at the Summer Solstice in the year marks the start of the warmest part of the year, but also the reduction in day length. This became the Dragon Boat Festival on the fifth day of the fifth month which often falls near the summer solstice. As well as procuring rain from the water controlling dragons for the summer crops, it commemorates the life of Qu Yuan (340-278 BCE), an incorruptible public official who drowned himself in defiance of unjust rule. Many boats went out in search for his body and from this legend dragon boat races take place throughout the world. Triangular rice cake zòng zi and garlic suàn are particular associated with this festival, some are fed to the fish on the basis that they would then leave Qu Yuan's body alone. Two teams of 15-30 people race each other in boats with a decorated dragon prow. It is only recently (2008) that this has become an official public holiday again. Hong Kong is well known for the large number of races that take place each year. The fifth month is generally regarded as the most unlucky month and charms were used to keep the bad influence at bay, for example with pictures of Zhong Kui or putting iris flowers over the door. Traditionally Realgar wine (containing Arsenic sulfide) was drunk to kill off internal parasites and infections.


YouTube video of Dragon Boat race in China

Dates : Mon Jun 18 2018  Fri Jun 7 2019  Wed May 27 2020  

Saturday 15th June 2019

Rain Festival (Yǔ jié )

Rain is essential for crops and another minor festival, the Rain Festival, like the Dragon Boat festival, is associated with rain on the 13th of the fifth month. Ceremonies used to seek just the quantity of rain, not too little and not too much. Like St. Swithin's day , the absence of rain on this day may presage a drought. There are many gods of rain and legends about them. As rain is associated with dragons they feature prominently in such tales including the Jinlong Si Dawang (Golden Dragon King). It is not a public holiday.

Friday 21st June 2019 - Summer Solstice (Xiàzhì 夏至) [Jieqi fortnight]

Wednesday 3rd July 2019

Half Year Festival (Bàn nián jié )

Half way through the lunar calendar year is on the 1st day of the 6th month, and it is a time to reflect on the year so far. Mainly celebrated in southern China, the Half Year Festival is in places treated as an echo of the New Year Festival, with fire crackers, zong zi (glutinous rice) and family get-togethers. According to legend in Jiashanwu Village near Hangzhou a long drought was ended by the efforts of a mysterious old man. It is a minor festival and not a public holiday.

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Citation information for this page : Chinasage, 'Chinese Festivals', last updated 21 May 2018, Web, http://www.chinasage.info/festivals.htm.

Source references used for this page: Book : A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols, Eberhard, Routledge, 1983 pp. 102-103, 106, 123, 159-160, 205-207, 320; Book : China : Eyewitness Travel, Dorling Kindersley, 2012 p. 44-47; Book : China A to Z, May-lee Chai and Winberg Chai, Plume, 2007 p. 227-230; Book : China: A Concise History, Meyer, Littlefield Adams, 1984 p. 65; Book : Chinese Civilization - A source book, Patricia Ebrey, The Free Press, 1993 p. 208-209; Book : Chinese Cultural Traditions, Yujing He, CreateSpace publishing, 2013 p. 40-51; Book : Chinese Customs, Hu Lingque and Xiang Wei, Better Link Press, 2008 p. 34-62; Book : Lion and dragon in northern China, Reginald Johnston, Murray, 1910 p. 154-194; Book : Little-known Chinese Festivals,Shanghai Daily, Shanghai Daily, eBook p. 1-200; Book : Myths and Legends of China, Werner, Dover, 1922 p. 43-45; Book : Nagel's Encyclopedia guide: China, Nagel, 1978 p. 337-339; Book : Symbols and Rebuses in Chinese Art, Fang Jing Pei, Ten Speed Press, 2004 pp. 1, 58-59, 63-64, 77; Book : Symbols of China, Feng Jicai, Compendium, 2010 p. 137-146; Book : The Long March: The Untold Story, Harrison E. Salisbury, Harper and Row, 1985 p. 21-22; Book : The Water Kingdom, Philip Ball, Vintage, 2017 p. 52; Book Social life of the Chinese, Justus Doolittle, Harper and Brothers, 1865 [2] p. 24-90; Festivals (nationsonline) ; Festivals (teacup) ; Festivals (timeanddate) ; Festivals (wikipedia) ; Festivals (wikipedia) ; Festivals (wikipedia) ; Qu Yuan (wikipedia)

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