Map of Hebei Inner Mongolia Liaoning Shandong Henan Shanxi Beijing Tianjin

Hebei Province

Name ( běi) ['river' 'north'] Old Name Hopei WG
Population73.582 million (5.35 %) [6th] comparison table
Area188,000 km2 [72,587 mile2] (1.96 %) [12th]
GDP39,984 (11.76 %) [20th]
Position of Hebei in China
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Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Hong Kong Xinjiang Tibet Qinghai Gansu Inner Mongolia Heilongjiang Jilin Liaoning Yunnan Sichuan Guangxi Hainan Taiwan Guangdong Guizhou Chongqing Ningxia Shandong Fujian Zhejiang Shaanxi Shanxi Hebei Henan Hunan Hubei Jiangxi Anhui Jiangsu


Beijing Tianjin Liaoning Inner Mongolia Shanxi Shandong Henan

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If you include Beijing and Tianjin within Hebei, it would be by far the most important province in China, but even without them Hebei is still of great significance. It stretches well beyond the Great Wall into the northern Mongolia plateau down to one of the Yellow River's ancient channels to the sea in the South. It is from its position north of the Yellow River (Huang He) that it gets its name. It slopes from high mountains in the north-west down to the fertile alluvial plain in the south-east. It has been part of China from earliest times, at least as long ago as the Shang dynasty.

Hebei, temple, canyon
Temple and bridge over the deep canyon at Cangyanshan, Hebei

Hebei History

From the Ming dynasty up until 1928 the area covered by Hebei was part of ‘Zhili ()’ also known as Chihli WG, which was directly administered by the Emperor - as it included the capital - rather than as a separate province. The province was not greatly developed until recently, the continuous threat of droughts and flooding from Yellow and Hai rivers made agriculture and building on the plain too perilous. Extensive water management now makes agriculture economic. Shijiazhuang, a busy industrial and railway town, became the provincial capital when Tianjin was hived off as a metropolitan ‘province’ level district in 1968. It grew rapidly in the last hundred years as the railway hub for northern China. Shijiazhuang boasts a memorial to the Canadian doctor Norman Bethune who helped the Communist Army in the Japanese Occupation. Handan and other cities in the south of Hebei have a more ancient feel to them. Zhaozhou has the ancient Anji stone bridge dating back 1,400 years; the oldest open-spandrel arch bridge in the world.

Places to visit in Hebei

Chengde (see later section) north-east of Beijing boasts one of the Qing Imperial Summer Palaces located to give the Imperial court a break from the summer heat. The Qing dynastic tombs are located near here as well as the historic Puning Temple . Qinhuangdao near the border with Liaoning has European influenced beach resorts including Beidaihe which is now frequented by the Chinese élite. Nearby at Shanhaiguan there is an impressive fort where the Ming dynasty Great Wall dramatically reaches the sea. Inland, part of the Wall is submerged in the Panmjiakou Reservoir . The Wall cuts across the northern half of the Province and is Hebei's main tourist attraction. Cangyan Shan in the south-west has an impressive collection of monasteries set amongst the mountains while Zhangshi Crag National Park has breathtaking scenery. Tangshan just east of Beijing was the epicenter of China's worst earthquake in recent years, on Jul 28 1976 when 650,000 people lost their lives.

It was midnight on the 28th of July, 1976. Shaken half-awake, I was dully aware that something strange was happening. I could feel the ground under me jerking back and forth, up and down. Before I could make out what was really happening, the roof had collapsed and I was half buried under it. Then I realized, this was an earthquake!

No sooner was I aware of the dreadful situation than I heard my boy crying loudly and my wife calling in a muffled, barely audible voice: “Where are you, Shou-chung? Come and help us quick - if you can!” If I can? I was pressed down under such a weight of rubble, I could hardly move a finger! But I should try to control my fears. “Don’t worry, my dear,” I said, as calmly as I could; “I’ll manage to get out in a moment, then I’ll soon have you out too.”

Yang Shou-Chung report of Tangshan earthquake, China Now No. 103. p.12. July 1982

People in Beijing were also badly affected. Tens of thousands of people camped out in Tian'anmen Square for two months.

Hebei, Beidaihe
Beidaihe beach resort, Hebei


The import of opium from India had a devastating effect on China. Although opium had been grown and used in China for centuries the import of huge quantities of the British controlled trade into Guangdong proved far more addiciive. It was the government officials who were most affected and even Dowager Empress Cixi used opium. Attempts to stop the trade led to two wars with Britain which China lost.
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The province is heavily industrialized, producing machinery; textiles; coal (Kailuan Coal Mines near Tianjin); oil fields (offshore in the Bohai Gulf) as well as steel and chemicals. The flat alluvial soils made by the Yellow River over the centuries created rich agricultural land that produce copious wheat; cotton; corn and tobacco. The province has cold winters and hot, humid summers with rainfall restricted to mainly July and August. The northern part suffers from vast dust storms which bring sand and dust from the Gobi desert.

Qing Tombs

Each dynasty in China had its own burial ground. The Manchu or Qing dynasty have some tombs 78 miles [125 kms] east of Beijing hence its name qīngdōng líng Eastern Qing Tombs and some to the west 西 qīngxī líng Western Qing Tombs. The sites were carefully chosen for the very best Feng Shui. The Eastern Qing tombs are located just inside Hebei province and south of the Great Wall. It contains the tombs of five emperors, fifteen empresses and over a hundred concubines. After the fall of the dynasty in the 1920s, the tombs were extensively plundered.

Qing dynasty, Qing tombs, Hebei
Ruins of the Eastern Royal Tombs of the Qing dynasty, Zunhua, Hebei

tiē to stick; to paste; to keep close to

Made up of [ bèi shell; precious; cowrie shell radical 154, zhān to observe; to divine]
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The structure of both Qing tomb complexes follows the traditional Han Chinese format, a Sacred or Spirit Way guarded by stone animals and officials leads to a site at the foot of a mountain. In the Eastern group, the largest central tomb (Xiaoling) is that of Shun Zhi, the founder of the dynasty. The area has a number of ornamental arches, bridges and halls. The long lived Emperor Qianlong has the finest tomb, it was started when he was 30 and he went on to live to the age of 88. Dowager Empress Cixi has a large and impressive tomb, and to emphasize her control in this case the Phoenix (representing the Empress) is shown dominating the Dragon (representing the Emperor).

The Western Qing Tombs are located 87 miles [140 kms] south-west of Beijing and houses the remains of ten emperors. When Emperor Qianlong was advised that the Eastern Qing tomb site had superior feng shui, he dictated that burials should alternate between the two necropolises. Unlike the Eastern Tombs these have not been plundered or excavated.

Chengde resort, Hebei

Hebei, Chengde, Buddhism, ding
Buddhist temple at Chengde, Hebei

Not content with just the Forbidden City and Summer Palace, the Qing Emperor Kangxi created a mountain resort at Chengde in 1703 to escape the summer heat of Beijing. It was called Bìshǔ Shānzhuāng, literally ‘Mountain villa to avoid the heat’.

Chengde, Hebei, Qing dynasty, temple
Little Potala Palace (Putuo Zongcheng) at Chengde, Hebei
The governance of modern China

The governance of modern China

Modern History

Governing 1,400 million people is no mean feat. China's structure of government is a power pyramid with the President at its head. In theory the people elect representatives who decide policy, in practise the ruling elite are rarely challenged by the democratic process. However the strong military involvement in government has been on the wane for over 25 years.

Kangxi and the emperors following him, spent the summer months at Changde, often in outdoor pursuits such as hunting in the hills. It reminded the Manchu rulers of their origins as herdsmen of the northern plains. Chengde was also known as Jehol or Rehe in pinyin after an old name for the whole province of which it was the capital. It was here that British ambassador Earl MacCartney sought a trade agreement with China in vain in 1793. Chengde gradually grew to be even larger than the Imperial Palaces in Beijing. There are replicas of many buildings of traditional and regional architecture dotted around lakes with linking walkways. The Putuozongcheng Miao is a replica of the Potala Palace, Lhasa. Pule Si or ‘Temple of Universal Joy’ has a conical yellow roof rather like the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. Puning Si commemorates the defeat of Mongol rebels and has a Tibetan style and is a working monastery while the Wenjin Pavilion housed a great collection of books. Chengde fell into ruin after the foundation of the Republic of China and only recently after painstakingly careful restoration has it become a major tourist attraction.

jehol, chengde, Hebei, Macartney
Lake and Park in the imperial gardens, Jehol (painting by Alexander from a sketch by Lieutenant Parish). Macartney embassy to Beijing 1793. Image by Parish available under a Creative Commons License

Hebei Climate

Temperature axisClimate ChartRainfall axis
Climate chart for Hebei
Both Temp Rainfall ° C/mms ° F/ins Key
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Major CitiesPopulation
Baoding 995,652
Cangzhou 527,681
Chengde 449,325
Handan邯郸 1,358,318
Qinhuangdao 759,718
Shijiazhuang 2,834,942
Tangshan 3,372,102
Xingtai 611,739
Zhangjiakou 692,602


Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport 石家庄正定国际机场 SJW IATA / ZBSJ ICAO
The airport has 1 terminal and is located 31.1 miles (50.0 kms) from Shijiazhuang. Live Flight information , Airport information , rank in China 37
See map of location Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport

City populations for 2012, Province statistics National Bureau of Statistics 2014

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