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Jiangxi Province

Name 西 (jiāng ) ['river' 'west'] Old Name Kiangsi WG
CapitalNanchang
Population45.322 million (3.30 %) [13th] comparison table
Area167,000 km2 [64,479 mile2] (1.74 %) [17th]
GDP34,660 (6.28 %) [27th]
Position of Jiangxi in China
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Neighbors

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Nanchang, Jiangxi
Daybreak view from the Lakeview Hotel window at in Nanchang, Jiangxi. October 2005.
Image by Venus available under a Creative Commons license

Jiangxi is an inland province in southern China. The river basin of the Gan Jiang that flows north to the Yangzi defines its borders; the province's shortened name is ‘Gan’ after the river.

History

From the 8th century onwards there is a long history of silver mining and tea production in the province. When China opened up to foreign trade at Guangzhou, Jiangxi was on the overland route to Guangdong. This was particularly important for the transport of vast amounts of porcelain (china) produced at Jingdezhen for export to Europe. This trade dwindled in the late Qing when foreign countries set up steamer transport ships on the Yangzi.

Later on, in 1927 during the Republican period Zhou Enlai led an abortive communist uprising in Nanchang. In the last thirty or so years the northern part of Jiangxi province has now become heavily industrialized. The southern part is more mountainous and continues to suffer from poor transport links.

Places to visit in Jiangxi

One of the best known and oldest pavilions (Tang dynasty) in southern China is the Tengwang Pavilion near Nanchang. To the north, Jiujiang set on the Yangzi, was an important port for transport right out to sea (including tea; rice and porcelain) and it is now a modern city on a busy railway route.

Jiangxi, Nanchang, pavilion, modern housing
Nanchang city, Jiangxi

Lushan is a particularly picturesque mountain and is a draw for Chinese and foreign tourists. The mountain's buildings include some European architecture that dates back to colonial days when the coolness and beauty of this mountain was appreciated by foreigners. Often shrouded in mists, Lushan, is located to the west of Poyang Lake and soars to 4,836 feet [1,474 meters]. It offers a respite from summer heat, even on its lower slopes. Dragon's Head Cliff is its most famous viewpoint. The Tang poet Li Bai wrote eloquently about the waterfalls on the mountain. The poet Bai Juyi wrote of the ‘peach blossom path’ to the summit. Closer to modern times Chiang Kaishek had a house here; and in 1959, a pivotal meeting in the early days of the Peoples Republic took place when Liu Shaoqi took over as Chairman from Mao Zedong. In 1970 another important political meeting ended the career of Lin Biao.

porcelain For a guide to the development of porcelain and the history and process of its manufacture at Jingdezhen please see our Porcelain section.

Jingdezhen is world famous for the huge amount of porcelain that it has produced since the Southern Song dynasty. The potteries use local kaolin (china clay) to fire fine translucent white porcelain. There is now an interactive museum in an old Ming building to explain the whole production process. Other places to visit include: Mount Longhu () is a scenic spot venerated by Daoists. Sanqing shan near Shangrao is a UNESCO protected mountain range. Poyang Hu in the north is the largest freshwater lake in China and is linked to the Yangzi. It acts as a buffer to be filled with the summer surge of water that would otherwise flood the lands further downstream.

Jiangxi, landscape, view
Wuyuan, Jiangxi

Jiangxi is well known for its role in the Communist Party history. Mao Zedong and other leaders became hemmed in on Jiangxi's Jinggang Mountains . Threatened by yet another Nationalist extermination campaign, the Red Army broke out on 16th October 1934 and started the Long March () through hazardous mountains all the way to Yan'an in Shaanxi (a distance of 6,000 miles [9,656 kms]) of the roughly 60,000 who started the march, only 7,000 reached their destination. Ciping is a good center for exploring the majestic scenery and China's revolutionary past.

Jiangxi, opera
Nanchang University Jiangxi Opera performance, 2012 Copyright © Dreamstime see image license

Geography

As part of southern China, Jiangxi has hot, wet summers and short cool winters, making Jiangxi ideal for rice cultivation. Tea is produced in great quantities too; Yunwu tea is produced at Lushan; Black tea at Ningzhou and Green tea at Wuyuan. Bamboo is another important crop.

Jiangxi Climate

Temperature axisClimate ChartRainfall axis
Climate chart for Jiangxi
Both Temp Rainfall ° C/mms ° F/ins Key
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Major CitiesPopulation
Ganzhou 550,000
Jiujiang 392,895
Nanchang 1,765,900
Pingxiang 346,759

Airports

Ganzhou Huangjin Airport 赣州黄金机场 KOW IATA / ZSGZ ICAO
The airport has 1 terminal and is located 9.9 miles (16.0 kms) from Ganzhou
See map of location Ganzhou Huangjin Airport
Nanchang Changbei International Airport 南昌昌北国际机场 KHN IATA / ZSCN ICAO
The airport has 1 terminal and is located 17.4 miles (28.0 kms) from Nanchang
See map of location Nanchang Changbei International Airport
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Citation information: Chinasage, 'Jiangxi, China', last updated 14 Oct 2015, Web, http://www.chinasage.info/maps/jiangxi.htm.

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