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Yangzi River

Yangzi River

The Yangzi river (), still often known by its old name of Yangtse WG, is the third longest river in the World and drains a vast basin of 772,200 sq miles [1,999,989 sq kms] with a flow of 29,000 m3 at its mouth, making it the second largest after the Amazon and has over 20 times the flow rate of the Yellow River. The build up silt at the outflow advances the delta by about 60 feet [18 meters] each year.

Yangzi River, river
The upper Yangzi valley in Yunnan

Route of the Yangzi

The Yangtse river rises in Qinghai province, flows south to form the border between Tibet and Sichuan and enters Yunnan where it makes an about turn to head north east back into Sichuan. It then flows through the three famous gorges (Xiling, Wu and Qutang) in the new province of Chongqing. After the Three Gorges dam the Yangzi enters the lowland lakes of Hubei. The river then meanders more slowly through Anhui before reaching the sea in Jiangsu. Shanghai lies close to its mouth where it enters the South China Sea. Three great cities and provincial capitals are located along its way: Chongqing; Wuhan and Nanjing. Nanjing has at times been the capital of the whole of China.

Yangzi Gorge, Yangzi River, river
Tributary of the Yangtze River Photo by Oskarp , available under a Creative Commons license .

Huge lakes, principally Poyang and Dongting, in the lower reaches act as buffer stores for summer rains to help prevent flooding further downstream. The Yangzi is easily navigable upstream as far as Wuhan and Yichang.

Thu 22nd Dec 2016

Smog forcing city re-design

As a considerable proportion of China is swathed in toxic smog planners are considering how to combat the problem. One proposed solution is to move people and businesses away from the suburbs of Beijing into outlying districts. The move would give people shorter commutes and lower the density of people in polluted areas. In the last 18 years energy consumption has doubled and the number of cars tripled (Oh for the Halcyon days of bicycles)! The long term plan is for Beijing's population to be capped at 23 million.

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Three Gorges Dam

The Three Gorges giant dam (Sanxia) built just upstream of Samdouping was completed in 2006 had three benefits: generation of 67 billion KW/h of hydro-electric power; flood prevention and better navigation up to Chongqing. The dam is 600 feet [183 meters] high and 1,243 miles [2,000 kms] wide and creates a 400 miles [644 kms] long reservoir. It is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world, but not the largest dam. To navigate up and downstream ships take nearly three hours to pass through the largest lock system in the world. Originally teams of trackers hauled boats upstream through the dangerous rapids of the gorges aided by pilots. A smaller dam at Gezhouba was completed in 1988. The original plans were drawn up with American help in the Chiang Kaishek era, the project was then taken up by Mao Zedong. With the higher river level more boats can now reach Chongqing more quickly, but at the cost of the displacement of 400,000 people. Most Yangzi river cruises ply their trade between Chongqing and the Three Gorges dam.

Chongqing, Yangzi River, modern housing
View of Chongqing from the Yangzi River Copyright © Dreamstime see image license
Tue 22nd Nov 2016

No smoking in China

One of the disappointing facts about China has been the apparent race to be the number one country for cigarette smoking. The current statistic is that the each adult in China smokes an average of 6 cigarettes a day putting the country as number 9 - below Russia on a per capita basis but due to China's population that puts the country on top of the table for total tobacco consumption. That for the year 2009 amounts to 2,640,000,000,000 cigarettes (yes 2.64 trillion!). About 60% of men smoke but only 4% of women in China.

Government efforts to curb smoking have not been entirely successful. Restaurants and other enclosed places had a ban some years ago. Now (November 2016) the government is enacting legislation to ban smoking in most public places. A fine of 500 yuan can be imposed for smoking in public parks, near children and near historic monuments.

It is likely that the new law will be widely flouted until the ban is combined with public health campaign to convince the 300 million smokers to give up. Personally speaking I have become so sensitive to smoke that I find it unpleasant when wafted on the breeze from a hundred yards away, so traveling in China can be rather tricky.

smoking, cigarettes

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Yangzi History

During the Song dynasty the Mongols invaded from the north and so the capital of China moved to Hangzhou and the Yangzi river was the focus of the Chinese nation rather than the Huang He (Yellow River). After the Taiping Rebellion, Britain and other European powers sought to increase their influence in the Yangzi basin, and had trading concessions at Hankou (which is now part of Wuhan) and Chongqing. Foreign steamboats and gunboats frequently sailed up the Yangzi as far as Chongqing, although they still needed the help of trackers and pilots over the most difficult stretches. During the days of the Japanese occupation (1931-1945) Chiang Kaishek ruled ‘Free China’ from Chongqing and controlled the upper Yangzi valley. During this period, in July 1935 the Yangzi suffered its worst flood in modern times, killing about 140,000 people and flooded an area about the same of the whole U.K.. Previous and equally damaging floods occurred in 1911 and 1530, the Three Gorges Dam should prevent such disastrous flooding happening again.

The Yangzi was the scene of an International incident at the end of the Civil War. In April 1949, the Nationalists were being pushed south by the Communist Army. A British ship, the HMS Amethyst , came under attack and had to steal away at night down the Yangzi. The event marked the end of gunboat incursions, from then on foreign ships only sailed up the river with government permission.

Yangzi River, three gorges dam, river, lock
Locks on the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangzi River

The Yangzi River has for long been the natural division between northern and southern China. It was as late as 1957 that the first bridge on the lower reaches at Wuhan was opened. East of Yichang there were no bridges; railway carriages had to be unhitched and taken by ferry across the river. Later an even mightier bridge downstream at Nanjing was completed in 1968. In the last 20 years many new bridges have been constructed and there are more than 100 bridges over the lower stretch of the River. The Yangzi has a navigable network of 43,496 miles [70,000 kms] with 3,000 ton ships able to make the 1,000 miles [1,609 kms] journey from its mouth to Chongqing. Near its mouth the river was home to the freshwater dolphin: the Baiji but due to pollution and over-fishing it is now extinct.

Tue 3rd Jan

Firecracker ban

When Mr. Li set off 20,000 firecrackers to celebrate moving into his new, luxury house in Ziazing Zhejiang he was one of the first people to end up with a fine. Firecrackers have for centuries been used to celebrate festivals, birthdays and many other events. Concerns about air pollution and just as important noise pollution have led to some cities imposing bans. It will be interesting to see whether fines will be imposed on Chinese New Year which is now less than four weeks away.

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Yangzi by any other name

As with many names for Chinese places Yangzi is not used in China for the river, except may be, for a short section between Zhenjiang and Jiangdu in Jiangsu. Yangzi means son of the ocean, although this may be an early transcription error, reading (yang - ocean) instead of (yang - a placename) . Often just 'Jiang' (meaning “The River”) is perfectly good enough in China. Chang Jiang “Long River” or Da Jiang “Great River” are also used.

The upper stretch in Qinghai is called Tongtian He “River to heaven” then becoming Jinsha Jiang “Golden sands river” above Dukou in Sichuan, possibly due to the presence of some alluvial gold. Here it is joined by the mighty 雅砻 Yalong Jiang. At Yibin it meets the Min Jiang to become the Da Jiang “Great River”. The stretch through the gorges is sometimes called the Xia Jiang “Gorge River”. However for much of its lower reaches it is called Chang Jiang “Long River”.

Yangzi River, Nanjing, bridge
The Nanjing bridge over the Yangzi
Yangzi Bridge, Yangzi River, river
Runyang North Bridge over the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) in Jiangsu province, southern China. Photo by Andy Zang , available under a Creative Commons license .
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