Imperial Eunuchs huàn

Empress Cixi, eunuch, Qing dynasty
Empress Dowager Cixi of China with palace eunuchs. 1903. Image by Yu Xunling available under a Creative Commons license

There has been a very long history of eunuchs in China; the last Imperial eunuch died as late as 1996. Originally castration was carried out as a punishment as in the famous case of the great historian Sima Qian in 96 BCE. Eunuchs became influential at court as long ago as the Qin dynasty. Eunuchs could not father children they were trusted servants compared to the relatives of the Emperor and Empress who often conspired to elevate their children to positions of power. Because an Emperor had to marry outside his family the Empress's power lasted only as long as her husband the Emperor. This abrupt end to a family's prestige led to many brutal conflicts. In the Han dynasty the more impartial power of eunuchs counter-weighted the palace struggles between the family of the Empress and the family of the bride of the young heir apparent.

Growing Importance of Eunuchs

The power of eunuchs continued to grow during the Han dynasty, they were appointed to high administrative positions and controlled all Imperial appointments. As they attended the Emperor from his birth and the Emperor rarely left the palace they were the only means to reach the Emperor. It was the tight control of access that gave them an immense source of income; a bribe of gold to the appropriate officials was needed to gain the Emperor's ear. They were seen as the Emperor's personal servants and often at odds with the scholars and nobles who sought an audience with the Emperor. At times the eunuchs formed a secret police force, spying on potential threats to the throne and also threats to their own power. Although unable to father children, they were allowed to adopt, and this became a powerful form of patronage. The attraction of becoming a eunuch was the potential great wealth that could be attained, for example Liu Jin after only 4 years in office had accumulated 15 million pounds of gold in 1510CE. The admiral and explorer Zheng He is perhaps the most famous and best regarded eunuch (he was also a Muslim).

The eunuchs were organized into a strict hierarchy, there were twelve departments: utensils; store houses; clothing; food; ceremonial equipment; music; calligraphy and ceremonial support. It was the last department that had the most power as it advised the Emperor on what and when could be done based on ancient precedent. An audience could easily be canceled if the department advised that it would be inauspicious on that day. The director of this division was the Chief Eunuch and the Emperor's right hand man.

Li Lianying, eunuch
Li Lianying (1848 - 1911), a famous imperial eunuch of Qing Dynasty, China. Image available under a Creative Commons license

On the re-unification of the Sui dynasty, the eunuchs rose to power again, but never to the same level as during the Han dynasty. There was a brief resurgence under the later Tang emperors particularly Emperor Wenzong where the number of eunuchs reached 5,000, but the following Emperors limited their power to act as functionaries rather than power brokers. In the later Tang centralized control was weakening and the real power was with provincial rulers. There was another resurgence under the Ming dynasty, where the Forbidden City in Beijing became their enclave, at one time it has been estimated that there were 70,000 eunuchs. To curb their increasing power Ming Emperor Hongwu banned them from politics.

Emperor Xuangde, eunuch, Ming dynasty
Ming Emperor Xuande with his imperial eunuchs. 1425-35. Image by unknown court artist available under a Creative Commons license
For much more about the workings of the Chinese Imperial system and how the eunuchs played an important part please see our Chinese Emperor section and Imperial officials section.

Power of Eunuchs in China

One of the most powerful eunuchs was Wang Zhen (d.1449) who effectively ruled the Empire during the regency of Ming Emperor Zhengtong and it was he that led the disastrous northern campaign to subjugate Mongolia. The eunuch Wei Zhongxian (1568-1627) is considered the most notorious, the most powerful and villainous. He grew to have a power rivaling the emperor and was expected to found his own dynasty by the adoption of his nephew into the imperial family. It was the weak Ming Emperor Tianqi who gave him such power; choosing to spend his time on carpentry instead of ruling. It is Wei who is chiefly blamed for the final collapse of the illustrious Ming dynasty.

In the following Qing dynasty Dowager Empress Cixi despaired about the power of eunuchs calling them ‘rats and foxes’; ‘fawning sycophants’ and ‘artful minions’. The eunuchs and the Imperial administration had become so powerful that they blocked all attempts at reform that would jeopardize their influence and income. During the late Qing dynasty their numbers had gone into decline and the Last Emperor Puyi had less than 1,000 eunuchs in attendance. The last eunuch Sun Yaoting [1902-1996] was castrated a year after the foundation of the Republic so never saw the power and prosperity of the Imperial court.

palace, eunuch, Beijing
Entrance through the Gate of Peace at the Lama Temple Beijing (Yonghegong), or Palace of Peace and Harmony Lama Temple or Yonghegong Lamsery, a renowned lama temple of the Yellow Hat Sect of Lamaism. Building work on the YongHeGong Temple started in 1694 during the Qing Dynasty. It originally served as an official residence for court eunuchs. It was then converted into the court of Prince Yong Zheng (Yin Zhen), a son of emperor KangXi. After YongZheng's ascension to the throne in 1722, half of the building was converted into a lamasery, a monastery for monks of Tibetan Buddhism, while the other half remained an imperial palace. November 2006. Image by Dennis Jarvis from Halifax, Canada available under a Creative Commons license

In China, castration involved cutting off both the penis and the testicles in one operation. Many eunuchs died as a result of the operation; if they survived it could still take six months for the wound to completely heal. The operation was normally carried out in a special room in the Forbidden City. Boys, usually at about the age of ten, seeking to become eunuchs were given opportunities to back out if they showed distress during the preparations. Because of a long held belief that the body should remain complete the castrated parts were preserved and buried with the eunuch so that he may become whole again in the after-life. When fully recovered from the operation the new eunuch would enter an Imperial school dedicated to train young eunuchs to become accomplished Imperial servants. Although castration outside the palace was made illegal, sometimes fathers would perform the operation on their sons in the hope they might then be accepted at court. Many of the boys came from poor families of the northern provinces who fancied the faint chance of attaining great riches.

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Citation information: Chinasage, 'Eunuchs as Imperial servants in dynastic China', last updated 15 Oct 2015, Web,

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