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The Yellow River - Huáng Hé

Yellow River,Huang He
Yellow river, view, river
The Yellow River in Ningxia

The Yellow River ( Huáng Hé ) Hwang Ho WG) is at the heart of China, both historically and geographically. It is the second longest river in China after the Yangzi 3,400 miles [5,472 kms]. Rising in Qinghai province close to the source of the Yangzi at 13,000 feet [3,962 meters] it heads over the mountains to Lanzhou, Gansu the ancient gateway city of China. Turning north into the dry Gobi desert it irrigates the ancient city of Yinchuan, Ningxia before taking a large loop around Shaanxi province picking up its load of loess silt on the way. It then turns north-east between Shanxi and Henan to reach the sea in Shandong.

Province of China's ancient heartland

Province of China's ancient heartland

China

The modern province of Shaanxi has many sites of historic interest. Perhaps none more so than the tomb of the First Qin Emperor with its thousands of Terracotta warriors. With the great Yellow River, mountains and arid areas there is a great deal of scenic beauty too.

Yellow comes from the color of the river's waters, for the river carries a heavy load of silt (loess called Yellow Earth ( huáng tǔ in Chinese) picked up from an extensive plateau in Shaanxi, Shanxi and Gansu. It is perhaps the muddiest major river in the world, not only due to the silt but because of evaporation and infiltration in its lower half. The river can carry as much as 82 pounds [37 kgs] for every cubic meter of water. This heavy load of silt is both a great bonus and a curse. Like the lower Nile where the regular deposition of rich alluvial silts gave birth to the Egyptian Civilization, the Yellow River valley was the cradle for the creation of Chinese Civilization. The settlers who farmed the rich alluvial covered lands close to the River produced regular good harvests which gave them an advantage over the wandering herdsmen and hunters. In the upper stretches, the water from far away glaciers producing a steady, reliable flow throughout the year. The control of the river for irrigation was made possible by many technological innovations. In the Spring and Autumn period separate kingdoms had to co-operate in order to manage the waters, which was another spur to cultural development. It is said that the coordinated mass effort needed to tame the Yellow River is the very reason that a strong central government was needed in China.

Yellow river, waterfall, river
Hukou Waterfall on the Yellow River

Yellow

Tue 20th Jun

Hong Kong 20 years on

The 1st July 2017 marks twenty years since the U.K. 'gave back' Hong Kong to China. Although Hong Kong is a Special Autonomous Region within China with another 30 years to go before China takes full control, many believe that Beijing is firmly in control. The attempts to install more local democracy have been brutally suppressed. Hong Kong remains a prosperous place despite fears that independence from Britain would put it at a severe disadvantage compared to other cities, especially Shanghai.

Another article from CNN uses declassified documents to the complex maneuverings for hand-over unfolded on both sides. Britain sought to find a way to continue to run Hong Kong as a colony but China blocked that proposal, seeking immediate return to full Chinese control. Legally the core part of the settlement had been signed away as a permanent possession, but the vast bulk of the wider area later had been leased from China and up for legal repossession.

Democracy remains a thorny issue. After a century of denying Hong Kong residents any real say in local government, the British under last Governor Patten started to introduce local elections. Young activists continue to try to resist control from Beijing but as long as Hong Kong remains prosperous there is little appetite for confrontation.


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It was only after the Han dynasty that it was called the ‘Yellow River’ previously just ‘The River’ would do. May be, in these days the land was rich in forests and it is the man made clearance of forest and farming methods that has greatly increased the loess load that the river transports and so its color has changed to yellow. The Chinese character for yellow is huáng based on a picture of a precious object - a Jade pendant. Yellow or perhaps a better translation 'golden' has been the color of Emperor's robes since the Tang dynasty and the name of the legendary Yellow Emperor ( huáng dì) founder of China. The river and its color has been very important to the development of Chinese culture.

The provinces of Henan and Hebei are named after the river (their names literally mean “river north” and “river south”). The low flow rate of the lower stretches of the Yellow River make it difficult to navigate as it is so shallow; it has never been able to transport large quantities of goods and produce unlike the Yangzi.

Yellow river, view, river, bridge
The Yellow River in northern China

China's Sorrow ( Zhōng guó de tòng)

Fri 9th Jun

Recycling quotas slipping

Like most industrialized countries, China has its problems with waste. A new report reveals that rules requiring waste to be separated out for potential recycling for 17 years. As a vast and rapidly growing city Beijing generates a huge amount of waste, much of which goes to landfill. Beijing is now using incinerators to relieve pressures on a dwindling number of holes in the ground to fill with garbage. New initiatives are starting to enable much more rubbish to be sorted and potentially recycled.

The story is very much in line with environmental initiatives in China, the government continues to talk about the importance of preserving the environment but the implementation is, putting it diplomatically, rather patchy. A recent story in the Guardian gives a distressing tale of how water quality regulations have been widely ignored. In 2015 85% of the water in Shanghai's rivers was undrinkable and 56% was unfit for any purpose. Clearly a lot needs to be done so that the regulations start being more widely obeyed.

garbage
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The curse of the river is that the high load of sediment is often deposited in huge banks, silting up the river. The river banks gradually build up and eventually blocking the water flow, causing floods as the river seeks a new course. Beyond Kaifeng the river was too difficult to tame, the channel to the sea changed frequently over the centuries, in all 26 times in 3,000 years, most recently in 1853. In the Western Han dynasty it changed course twice in only six years. The god of the Yellow River was called He Bo . To appease the river god a human sacrifice was made every year up until the end of the Zhou dynasty; a beautiful girl was chosen and she was shackled to a marriage bed that was set upon the waters. For many centuries it was considered unlucky to rescue a person from drowning in a river as it would anger the god by removing the 'gift'. Everyone made an offering to the god to guarantee a safe crossing, usually in the form of a jade ring. In 30BCE fears of a flood led to the building of a cast of a gray horse decorated with jade emblems to offer to the waters. This attempt did not lower the level of the river and the local population fled to higher ground. The shamans held their ground, reciting their incantation and at last the flood started to abate and the governor was richly rewarded. Sometimes the river reached the sea much further south, even in Jiangsu Province to the south of Shandong. The river is now entombed in towering man-made levees running 33 feet [10 meters] above the level of the plain. The defenses need continued maintenance and re-modeling as the silt builds up in the channel high above.

Devastating floods occurred in 1931 (about 2,000,000 deaths) and 1887 (about 1,500,000 deaths). Detailed records of the floods and flood defenses go back over 4,000 years. The flood in 1938 (about 800,000 deaths) was deliberately caused by Chiang Kaishek in an attempt to hold back the Japanese occupation of China. This event was an historical echo of the flood in 1642 when the governor of Kaifeng broke the banks of the Yellow River to raise the siege of rebel leader Li Zicheng causing about 300,000 deaths. The floods make it by far the world's most deadly river. From this sad history the poetic name for the river ‘China's Sorrow’ can be appreciated.

Yellow River, Lanzhou, Gansu
Lanzhou with Yellow River seen from seen from Tianshui Road Bridge Photo by RThiele , available under a Creative Commons license .

The dangerous and meandering course of the river has made it unwise to build large cities to be built close to its banks on its lower stretches. Chang'an an ancient capital of China at present day Xi'an is built on the Wei River a tributary and not on the Huanghe River itself, only Kaifeng has been built close to its perilous waters.

Sanmenxia Dam

The Silk Road

The Silk Road

China

The silk road from China leading to India and through Central Asia to the Middle East was the longest trade route by land. It allowed early contact between the Roman Empire and China when silk was in much demand in Rome. The abandonment of the route led to a slow decline of the whole of northern China.

After the formation of the P.R.C. a flood defense plan was drawn up with Russian help. A large dam at Sanmenxia (on the Shanxi-Henan border) was completed in 1960 with the aim of controlling floods and generating electric power. However, as many Chinese had warned, the dam soon silted up. Remedial work was needed in 1964 to re-engineer the outflows. This work also failed and the dam now causes flooding of the Wei River. Sanmexia has limited flood defense potential and generates only 25MW of electricity. Much further upstream, the dam at Luijiaxia above Lanzhou is in clearer water and has been more successful.

Xiaolangdi Dam

The Emperor's Canal

The Emperor's Canal

China

The Grand or Emperor's canal is the longest canal system in the world. It links Hangzhou in the south to Beijing in the north - over 1,100 miles. Designed to carry huge amounts of rice from the rich lands of the south to the arid north it proved to be China's life line for over a thousand years. The canal enabled China a transportation system free from the threats of storms and pirates.

To provide the necessary river control a new dam was needed downstream from Sanmenxia. The concept was approved in 1991 and construction was completed in January 2001. It generates hydro-electric power (up to 5 billion KWh) from six huge turbines. However the river flow is not always adequate to drive at full power. The problem of silt build up has been solved by an annual high pressure venting of water over a ten day period in June/July. The regulation of water and silt flow has reduced the need for constant maintenance of the lower Yellow River defenses. This flushes out all the silt accumulating behind the dam. It has proven much more successful than Sanmenxia and adequately controls the waters, making a flood of Henan and Shandong only likely to occur once every few centuries rather than every few decades.

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