Confucius: China's great sage

Confucius [23 Aug 551 BCE - 479 BCE]

Qufu, Confucius
Statue of Confucius at Qufu, Shandong

No guide to China would be complete without a fulsome mention of Confucius. He is believed to have lived in the Warring States period of the Zhou dynasty. Every town used to have its temple with red walls dedicated to Confucius kǒng miào or wén miào.

Born at Qufu in Shandong Province he traveled widely among the kingdoms offering advice to rulers who all refused his help but gathered a dedicated band of disciples. It was his followers who had more impact, some took up appointments and promulgated his views of wise governance. Confucianism is not a religion in the same sense that Islam and Christianity are; but Confucius is revered far more than just an ordinary philosopher such as Socrates . This reverence is due in part to the fact that he managed to live up to his own strict principles.

His name in Chinese is kǒng zǐ or kǒng fū zǐ meaning “Master Kong”. As with many Chinese names the English version Confucius has evolved from the Wade-Giles system of writing his name phonetically with English sounds. Kong is the family name and his descendents (now at the 83rd generation) still live at his home town of Qufu and claim the longest documented family tree in the world. Every year his birthday on 23rd August is honored as a minor national festival.

Confucius was a teacher of the right way for a society to function. In his view human nature is naturally virtuous but needs careful control. His analogy was to the flow of water, water naturally flows down (the way of virtue) but circumstances can sometimes force it to flow up, as in the splashing at the base of a waterfall (a turn to the bad). He had no belief in an after-life or divine intervention, concentrating entirely on giving direction to the living. He is understood to have been a rather austere, inflexible and crusty man. His doctrine is grounded in the lives of men on earth and is not shrouded in superstitions. For many hundreds of years a student wishing to become a government official needed to know the Confucian classics by heart. These examinations began as early as the Han dynasty (over two thousand years ago). Confucianism was the guiding doctrine throughout many dynasties and still is very important today. In the last ten years Confucius Institutes have sprung up all over the world; even the structure of the Chinese Communist Party is based upon Confucian principles.

Benevolence and Empathy

Confucius identified the roles and responsibilities of everyone in society so that they can live together in harmony. The strict relationships included the ones between ruler to those ruled but just as importantly between husband and wife; father and son. He looked back from the turbulent times of the Warring States to the early years of the Zhou rule, which he considered a ‘Golden Age’ of peace and harmony. Broadly speaking Confucian doctrine defines the boundaries for relationships. When relationships are properly acknowledged people can live in harmony. Respect for parents (filial piety) is of the utmost importance, even after their death. One of the early fervent followers Lao Laizi went so far as behaving as a child in front of his parents - playing with toys - to keep them happy and feeling young even at the age of seventy. In essence he advocated to always take account of the wishes of others rather than just yourself, always choosing benevolent behavior and the most harmonious path. The guiding principles are rén benevolence and shù empathy. He placed great emphasis on following proper procedure and the due ceremony (rites) . Later dynasties had senior officials whose sole purpose was to ensure the proper rites were maintained at all costs. Over time over 300 ceremonies and 3000 rules of behavior were codified. The use of the kowtow to physically demonstrate due reverence was an important acknowledgment of hierarchical relationships. In particular he saw that rulers must be seen to lead a virtuous life if they were to retain the support of their subjects. This is a different perspective to that of Buddhism or Daoism where a more self-centered approach is taken. Support for the Confucian doctrine was always strong in the scholarly aristocratic circles rather than ordinary working people. From the Ming dynasty onwards the overly doctrinaire and reactionary interpretation of his teachings is widely regarded as preventing reform and progress. There have been periods when Confucian doctrine was rejected; these occurred in the Tang dynasty when Buddhism was dominant; the Taiping Rebellion and Mao's period as leader of the PRC. The Communist wish for continuous revolution and reform is at odds with a fixed hierarchy of relationships.

His teachings were only taken up widely in the Han dynasty long after his death. It was the work of his followers Mencius [372 - 289 BCE)] and Xunzi [313 - 238 BCE)] that cemented his reputation. Much later on in the Song dynasty, a new rigor was brought to the philosophy by Zhu Xi , founder of the neo-Confucian school. Confucius is believed to have written the classic Spring and Autumn Annals as well as the mainstay of Chinese study for centuries the Four Books and the Five Classics . His philosophical views are gathered into the 'Analects ' an assortment of sayings collected hundreds of years later. Typical sayings include: 'In serving one's master one should be focused on the task, not on the payment for carrying it out' (Book 15.37); 'To expect much from yourself and little from others is the way to cure discontent' (Book 15.14); 'When out walking with friends I am certain of learning from them. There are good qualities I will aim to emulate and bad ones I will seek to suppress in myself.' (Book 7.21); 'Slow to anger; resolute; rooted and loathe to speak - such a person is close to Goodness' (Book 8.27); and 'People who study but do not think are lost. People who think but not study are a great danger.' (Book 2.15)

Other important works include the ‘Great Learning’ Daxue and the ‘Doctrine of the Mean Zhongyong . In the doctrine of the mean the path to follow is always somewhere between extremes - often nowadays termed the 'third way'. Confucian thought has been subject to revision, during the Ming dynasty, scholars such as Wang Yangming updated and broadened the philosophy, but Confucian writings have poignancy today just as they did over 2,500 years ago.

Confucius, Qufu
Temple of Confucius, Qufu, Shandong

Mencius [372 BCE - 289 BCE] or Meng Tzu WG

Without Mencius it is unlikely that Confucius would be known about today. In a situation rather like Plato with regard to Socrates; it was Mencius that refined and championed the work of his idol Confucius.

Mencius, philosopher
Picture of the Confucian philosopher Mencius. Image available under a Creative Commons license .

Mencius is widely hailed as China's ‘Second Sage’, and studied with Confucius' grandson. He was born at Zoucheng, Shandong where there is a temple honoring the life of Mencius, which is not far from Confucius' own birthplace at Qufu. His name in Chinese is Mèng Zǐ. According to legend his mother taught him the importance of rigorous and concentrated study by moving house three times just to find the best place according to Feng Shui for her son to study (from the Three character classic). To demonstrate to him the folly of laziness and lack of concentration she deliberated wrecked the cloth she was weaving. Like Confucius he visited the courts of kingdoms during the Warring States Period expounding views on how to rule wisely and justly.

His opinions on the role of people and government have been widely used down the centuries. They are at times contrary to Confucius's own views. For example Mencius' maxim that Those who perform manual labor are to be governed; those who toil with their mind do the governing. reinforces the age old examination system and the rule by an intellectual elite. His views were compassionate at the universal level, for example promoting care for the elderly as a basic right. He believed everyone had an underlying caring nature to those less fortunate; people are inherently ‘good’ and the state should nurture this inherent trait. One quotation shows this compassion for others “I like living and I like doing my duty to my neighbor; but it I cannot do both, I will fore-go life in preference to foregoing my duty”. Some of his writings had far reaching repercussions, in terms of the reaction to foreign aggression he held the view that it was not degrading for a ruler to abase themselves to another power if it maintained the welfare of the people. This partly explains the acquiescence to Mongol and Manchu rule as well as the reaction to the European powers in the 19th century. If accepting foreign control protected the well-being of the people then that was the right thing to do. On the other hand he made it clear that the people had both the right and the duty to revolt against tyrannical rule.

The ‘Discourses of Mencius ’ were part of the official canon of learned works and a core subject for the state examinations. Unlike the ‘Analects of Confucius’ which were not written by Confucius himself, the Discourses are considered to be solely the work of Mencius and his immediate followers. Like Confucius he looked back from the troubled period of Warring States yearning for the Golden period of government under King Wen who established the Zhou dynasty.

Source references used for this page: Book : A glossary of reference on subjects connected with the Far East,Herbert Giles, Rowman and Littlefield,1900 p. 148; Book : A Map History of Modern China, Catchpole, Heinemann, 1976 pp. 4, 8, 24; Book : China : A short cultural history, G.P. Fitzgerald, The Cresset Press, 1950 p. 408-421; Book : China : Eyewitness Travel, Dorling Kindersley, 2012 p. 143; Book : China: A Concise History, Meyer, Littlefield Adams, 1984 p. 57; Book : China: A Macro History, Huang, Sharpe,1990 p. 10-12; Book : Chinese Characteristics, Arthur Henderson Smith, North China Herald, 1890 p. 26; Book : Chronicles of the Chinese Emperors, Ann Paludan, Thames and Hudson, 1998 p. 27-39; Book : Disputers of the Tao, A.C. Graham, Open Court, 1989 p. 111-132; Book : History: China Handbook Series, Foreign Languages Press, 1982 p. 1-12; Book : Lonely Planet: China, 1988 pp. 10-14, 32-35, 48-52; Book : Modern China: A companion to a rising power, Graham Hutchings, Harvard University Press, 2003 p. 86; Book : Nagel's Encyclopedia guide: China, Nagel, 1978 p. 140-157; Book : The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, Patricia Embury, Cambridge University Press, 2010 pp. 42-46, 212-213; Book : The Civilization Of China, Herbert A. Giles, Bickers and Dagny, 1911 p. 170-175; Book : The Treasures and Dynasties of China, Bamber Gascoigne, Jonathan Cape, 1973 p. 35-43; Book : The Walled Kingdom, Witold Rodzinski, Fontana, 1984 p. 34-35; Book The Shorter Science and Civilization in China, Needham and Ronan, Cambridge University Press, 1978 [1] p. 80-81; Confucius (rice) ; Confucius (wikipedia) ; Mencius (humanistictexts)
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