dīng nail; robust; adult man


Picture of a nail

Different tone

dǐng dìng (to set) dìng (how)

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Sound file kindly provided by shtooka.net under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License

stroke order for 丁
Stroke order for character 丁, kindly provided under Wikimedia creative commons license
Warring States

Warring States


The second part of the Zhou dynasty was known for incessant warfare between kingdoms. It was time of great importance to China as the philosophical traditions were developed that went on to dominate the next two thousand years. The first unification of China as a large nation state then followed.

The start of China's humiliation

The opium wars (1838-40 and 1956-60) marked the start of China's century of humiliation. Britain's refusal to stop importing opium was the initial event. Even though opium had been used in China for centuries the British variety was much more potent and addictive. Opium was cheap as supply by ship made it more economic to transport. British threats were not taken very seriously until it was far too late when Nanjing came under threat of bombardment. The second war, carried out jointly with the French opened up many more coastal ports for trade with Europe and America.
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