The second part of the Zhou dynasty was known for incessant warfare between kingdoms. It was time of great importance to China as the philosophical traditions were developed that went on to dominate the next two thousand years. The first unification of China as a large nation state then followed.
The start of China's humiliation
The opium wars (1838-40 and 1956-60) marked the start of China's century of humiliation. Britain's refusal to stop importing opium was the initial event. Even though opium had been used in China for centuries the British variety was much more potent and addictive. Opium was cheap as supply by ship made it more economic to transport. British threats were not taken very seriously until it was far too late when Nanjing came under threat of bombardment. The second war, carried out jointly with the French opened up many more coastal ports for trade with Europe and America. Read More
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