shǎng to hand down

Made up of [ shàng still; yet; to value , bèi shell; precious; cowrie shell radical 154]
Alternative traditional form of character:

Note

The 'shang' element gives phonetic, 'bei' for valuables gives the menaing
Number of strokes 12

Related characters


Using shàng : tǎng (to recline) tàng (collective for trips) zhǎng (palm of the hand)
Using bèi : guì (precious) zhēn (chaste) pín (poor) tiē (to stick)

Different tone

shàng (up) shàng (still)

< Previous shǎn Next shàng >

The start of China's humiliation

The opium wars (1838-40 and 1956-60) marked the start of China's century of humiliation. Britain's refusal to stop importing opium was the initial event. Even though opium had been used in China for centuries the British variety was much more potent and addictive. Opium was cheap as supply by ship made it more economic to transport. British threats were not taken very seriously until it was far too late when Nanjing came under threat of bombardment. The second war, carried out jointly with the French opened up many more coastal ports for trade with Europe and America.
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Opium

The import of opium from India had a devastating effect on China. Although opium had been graown and used in China for centuries the import of huge quantities of the British controlled trade into Guangdong proved far more addicitive. It was the government officials who were most affected and even Dowager Empress Cixi used opium. Attempts to stop the trade led to two wars with Britain which China lost.
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