Chinese Deities

A knowledge of the Chinese traditional gods and goddesses is particularly useful when visiting ancient temples or reading ancient texts. Many of the traditional gods started off as mere mortals and some went on to have a particular festival dedicated to them. These deities are often seen as sculptures in temples but they may also appear in other forms of decorations, some have a symbolic meaning, for more on these see our extensive symbolism section.

People familiar with the Egyptian, Greek or Roman pantheon of gods will be disappointed when considering the Chinese deities. There is no consistent framework or hierarchy, it is more of an assorted collection, suggesting the stories come from different places at different times. The ‘Supreme’ deity Shangdi does not feature in many tales and does not interact with other deities, and so can not be compared to Zeus or other supreme gods. The chief reason for this is that Confucianism has generally been the dominant philosophy, and that is firmly rooted in rationality and the here and now. So the mythological figures were not considered suitable subjects for scholars, it was mainly the illiterate who kept the stories alive by oral tradition. History has a long tradition for accuracy in China; the impartial recording of facts is totally at odds with creative imaginings. However the ancient deities of folk religions have always been cherished by the local people so they can get together and enjoy festivals in their honor.

Ba xian (Eight Immortals)

The Eight Immortals feature in a famous legend in China. The character for immortal is made up from the character for man and mountain evoking the age old link of mountains as the haunt of deities. They are frequently depicted on vases; embroidery; porcelain and items of folk-art. Mostly they are associated with a magical voyage across the seas to the Isles of the Blessed. Each used their own magical power to stay afloat. They then fought and defeated the Dragon King and embark on a series of adventures together. The eight immortals comprise historical figures from various ages and represent different facets of human existence - everyone has one with whom they feel most affinity. Each is depicted holding something and these in isolation can symbolize the immortals. There are eight similar Buddhist Immortals that can be distinguished by the objects they hold.

deity, eight immortals, Shandong, Penglai
Statue of the Eight Immortals at Penglai Pavilion, Shandong
Li Tie Guai

Li Tie Guai (or Li T'ieh-kuai WG) is a person skilled in medicine, he is portrayed with a gourd full of potions often with a bat. He is also known as Kong Mu and Li Ningyang. The story is that a disciple was instructed to wait and then burn his body after a week, while he went off on a voyage as a spirit. Returning to find his body had been destroyed a day too early he was forced to inhabit the body of a beggar who had just died. The beggar had a paralyzed leg and so Li was given an iron stick to support him. His eyes did not fit the beggar's head properly and give the impression of Hollow Eyes (hence the name Kong Mu). He is often represented standing on a crab or accompanied by a deer. Symbol: bottle gourd.

Zhongli Quan 离权

Zhongli Quan was an army marshal who on retirement took to a hermit's life in the Yangjiao mountains, Hunan. The Five Heroes taught him about immortality and how to turn copper into silver. He then produced silver which he gave to the poor. One day a wall of his house collapsed revealing a jade box containing the secrets of immortality. After a while he mastered the technique and was whisked off by a celestial crane to the land of the immortals. His magical fan has the power to bring the dead back to life. He is also known as Han Zhongli . He is depicted as a fat man with a bare belly carrying a feather fan and/or a peach of immortality. Symbol: fan.

Engineer Leaders

All three recent Presidents of China studied engineering at University. Jiang Zemin : Electrical Engineering, Shanghai 1947; Hu Jintao : Hydraulic Engineering, Beijing 1965 and Xi Jinping : Chemical Engineering, Beijing 1979.
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Lan Caihe

Lan Caihe is portrayed as a woman or a hermaphrodite wearing a blue gown. As a mortal she lived as Yang Su of the Tang dynasty. She is depicted playing a flute or cymbals. She traveled the empire singing with one shoe off and one shoe on. Her breath was of shining mist. One day she was found drunk in Anhui and disappeared into a cloud leaving her shoe, dress, belt and castanets behind. She laments the short and fleeting life. Symbol: flower basket.

Zhang Guo Lao

Depicted as an Old Man, Zhang Guolao lived as a hermit of the Tang dynasty in Shanxi. He was then invited to attend Emperor Taizong but refused. Later on he accepted a further request from Empress Wu Zetian but he died on reaching the capital. He was immediately reborn in the Hengzhou mountains. He rode a white mule that could cover a thousand li in a day. The mule or donkey could be folded up as if it was paper and conveniently stored. He performed magical tricks for the Tang Emperor Xuanzong. He carries a bamboo tube drum with two rods to beat it; he is often shown seated on a mule with may be peaches or phoenix feathers. Symbol: bamboo tube drum.

He Xiangu

Depicted as holding a magic lotus flower (which opens the heart) and playing the sheng, He Xiangu (or Hé Qióng) lived in the reign of Empress Wu Zetian. Once she was threatened by a demon and rescued by Lu Dongbin. She moved to the Mother of Pearl Mountains and was shown how to achieve immortality by taking a magic potion. She then flew among the mountains picking fruit for her mother. She represents purity and self sacrifice. Symbol: lotus or peach.

Lü Dongbin 吕洞宾

In 755 Lu Dongbin was born in Shanxi into a family of officials. He went off to Lushan mountain, Jiangxi and met a fire dragon who gave him a sword with the power of invisibility. At Chang'an he met Han Zhongli who taught him magical powers and immortality. He is said to have to prove his skill by performing ten arduous tasks. For four hundred years he traveled the country killing dragons and preventing catastrophes. A tale relates that when visiting a wine bar instead of paying cash he painted two beautiful cranes on the wall, many came to see the realistic painting and the bar prospered, but as soon as Lu's debt was paid by the increased trade the cranes detached themselves from the wall and flew off. He was also known for his scholarship. He is depicted with a devil-killing sword and a fly-whisk (yun zhou) that enabled him to walk on clouds. Symbol: sword.

Han Xiangzi 韩湘

He was probably the great nephew of the famous Tang statesman Han Yu (c. 820CE). He soon excelled in horticulture. He could grow plants in a small handful of earth and a pupil of Lü Dongbi. He became immortal by climbing into the peach trees of Immortality and falling to the ground. His melodious playing of the flute attracted the birds and animals and is the patron of musicians. He saw no value in money and gave away any he was given. Symbol: flute.

Cao Guojiu

Cao Guojiu (930-999CE) was elected by the immortals to make up the set of lucky eight. He met Han Zhongli and Lu Dongbin who asked him what he was doing, when Cao Guojiu replied he was ‘Looking for the Way’ and then asked ‘Which way and where?’ Cao Guojiu responded by pointing to his heart. The immortals were impressed as ‘The heart is heaven and heaven is the Way’; he was soon given immortality. He is usually shown holding a scepter and castanets. He is the patron of actors. Symbol: castanets or ruyi.

,
xiān guò hǎi, gè xiǎn shén tōng [ba xian guo hai, ge xian shen tong]
eight immortal past sea each show god knowledge
The Eight Immortals crossing the sea all have there own particular skills
Everyone has their own special skills to contribute
deity
A Chinese door god ( ménshén) is a Chinese decoration placed on each side of an entry to a temple, home, business, etc., to keep evil spirits from entering.

The remaining deities are listed in alphabetical order.

Avalokiteshvara

The Avalokiteshvara is a 'future Buddha' entering enlightenment who has chosen to stay in this world to help mankind. Many depictions are found in Buddhist temples, the original form when it come from India is distinctly male while in later centuries the form became female.

Bao Zheng

Bao is a historical figure who lived 999-1062CE in the Song dynasty . He was a revered figure with temples dedicated to his honor at Kaifeng, Henan and elsewhere. His claim to fame was his incorruptibility, an honest and upright judge. He offered access to justice to all and stamped out corrupt practices, even in his own family. He lived modestly and he is held up as the model for all officials to try to follow.

Bixia Yuanhun 碧霞

The first Princess of the Purple and Blue Clouds is associated with childbirth. One deity of this name came from Fuzhou, Fujian and was the daughter of a great magician. She moved to a palace on the seas. The other deity of this name is the daughter of the God of Taishan mountain. The legend talks of Jiang Taigong who ruled so well and so virtuously that no storms came. As the Princess needed storms in order to travel through the kingdom he had to move out of his kingdom so that the Princess could pass. She can be confused with the Queen Mother of the West but can be distinguished by having three phoenixes in her headdress.

Cai shen

The ‘God of Riches and Prosperity’ is an important and highly regarded deity. There are at least three candidates for the title. One of them Zhao Gongming who lived for a while as a hermit on Emei mountain at the time of the fall of the Shang dynasty. He rode a black tiger and had magic pearls that would explode as grenades. Jiang Ziya defeated him by making an effigy of Zhao and shooting it with arrows. Zhao fell dead but the Jade Emperor took pity and made him the god of wealth. Sometimes the god of riches is represented by a pair of figures, sometimes one of them is the 'god of war' Guandi or the heavenly twins 'he-he'. Some think the different incarnations represent different departments of the Heavenly Treasury. Many Chinese homes will have a statue or two of him - he is shown with a gold ingot and ruyi. The 15th day of the 3rd lunar month is his festival date but he also honored on the fifth day of the New Year. He is the closest to Santa Claus in the pantheon of Chinese deities.

China's exciting plans to explore Space

China's exciting plans to explore Space

Modern History

China is putting a great deal of money and effort in building a space exploration programme. Already missions have put people into orbit around the Earth and landed robots onto the Moon. Plans exist for a large space lab and manned landings on the Moon and even missions to Mars.

Chang'e 嫦娥

The Goddess of the Moon Chang'e (or Chang Er) stole the potion of immortality from her husband the Archer God Hou Yi and fled to the Moon. There she is kept company by the Jade Rabbit. Her husband visited her and built a palace there, they meet at full moon each month. Another legend says she changed into a tortoise that can be seen as a marking on the moon. The Mid-Autumn Moon Festival celebrates Chang'e and her story. [For information about China's voyages of exploration to the moon read here; the lunar modules have been named Chang'e in deference to the goddess. ]

Cheng Huang

This deity defends cities and so is master of moats and ramparts. He is also regarded as the supreme minister of justice. Each town had its own version of Cheng Huang .

Da Fan Tian Wang

The Chinese name for Buddhist Brahma, the Father of all Living Things. He is also considered the Soul of the Universe who hatched the Cosmic Egg.

Feng Bo

The Duke of the Winds is depicted as an old man with a large sack, a white beard, yellow coat and red and white cap. The wind issues forth from his mouth.

The standing of women in China

The standing of women in China

Culture

Attitudes to women have varied greatly in China over the centuries. The traditional subservient position of women in society has only really changed in the last sixty years. Our section describes the role of women down the centuries including the role of concubines and how some Imperial women bucked the trend.

Fo Tuo 佛陀 or Da Fo

Fo Tuo is the Chinese name for the Buddha. The full name Amitābha in Sanskrit is transliterated as 阿弥陀佛 Āmítuófó.

deity, daoism
Daoist deities bringing happiness; prosperity and long life. They are shown in order Fu, Shou and then Lou.

Fu, Lou and Shou

Fu Shen; Lou (or Lu) and Shou 禄寿 Fú Lù Shòu form a trinity of deities giving good luck, respectively: Happiness; Prosperity and Longevity. They are often portrayed together in statues; ornaments and paintings. Collectively they are also known as the Three Star Gods. They are associated particularly with feng shui and Daoism. Fu Shen (Happiness) is usually depicted with a scroll, and sometimes with children. The good luck character fu is a representation of him as the God of Happiness. Historically he was a judge in Hunan who rebuked the Liang dynasty Emperor Wudi for his predilection for dwarfs to work as jesters and slaves at court. In gratitude people began to worship his as God of Happiness, he is often shown wearing lucky red colored clothes. Lu (Prosperity) wears a Mandarin's outfit; Shou (Longevity) holds a walking stick and has a large bald forehead and often carries a peach of immortality. Sometimes he is mounted on or stands beside a stag and may be Chinese 'medicinal' mushrooms 灵芝 líng zhī (associated with immortality) carpet the ground. Lu is particularly associated with luck in passing examinations which were the traditional passport to prosperity as a government official.

Guan Yu or Guan Di

The 'God of Righteous Action' comes by several names including Guan dong; Wu di; Guan Di. Guan Yu was a war hero of the Three Kingdoms period. He is one of the most widely represented Chinese deities. He swore loyalty to Zhuang Fei and Liu Bei. He was captured and executed by Sun Quan. The Ming Emperor Shenzong elevated him to the status of a Daoist god. Although termed a 'god of war' he is really about strategy, dignity and loyalty rather than aggression and violence - so 'god of Righteous Action' may be better. The Qing Emperors took steps to lionize Guanyu and raise his stature. As well as the patron of all soldiers he was noted for his scholarship and is venerated for his knowledge of diplomacy and acquisition of riches. He is often portrayed in opera as a general on horseback with a red face and green robe. His birthday is celebrated on the thirteenth day of the fifth month.

Guanyin

The Buddhist Goddess of Mercy listens to any who will seek her help. She steers the boat carrying souls to Paradise. According to legend Guanyin was the third daughter of Miao Zhuangwang who decided to become a Buddhist nun. Her father continued to maltreat her and tried to break her will; when at last he lost patience, he commanded that she should be killed with a sword, but the sword broke into many pieces. Not giving up, he had her suffocated but she was rescued and re-incarnated on Putuo Island off Zhejiang. She then used a part of her own arm to heal her sick abusive father who recovered and, suitably chastised, erected a statue in her honor. She is the protector of children and often shown surrounded by them. She is the goddess who protected the travelers in the famous tale ‘The Journey to the West’. The statue has many (sometimes a thousand) eyes and arms apparently because the order describing the desired form was misheard. She is often portrayed sitting on a lotus and accompanied by a boy with a bottle and a girl with a willow twig. In some ways she is similar to the Blessed Virgin Mary in Christian theology - she is compassionate and pure. The origin is probably from the youthful Avalokite?vara Bodhisattva of Indian Buddhism, the Dalai Lama is considered a reincarnation of Avalokite?vara - the original god became a goddess in the Chinese tradition.

deity
Guardian of Chinese Temple

He-he Heavenly twins

The Heavenly twins are shown as two boys carrying a box and a lotus symbolizes a wish for peace: '' (box) and harmony (lotus). One may also be holding a bowl over which fly five bats for good luck; it represents a wish for family peace and harmony. They may be based on the story of Shi de the eccentric friend of the legendary poet Han Shan .

Heng and Ha 哼哈

Generals Heng and Ha are frequently depicted as statues guarding Buddhist temples. The legend is that they lived at the time of the foundation of the Zhou dynasty and were given magical powers by Duè Zhenrèn who lived in the Kunlun mountains. General Heng could emit deadly rays from his nose. General Ha had been given the secret of exhaling a lethal gas. The two generals fought each other valiantly and they were rewarded for their prowess by being canonized by Emperor Jiang Ziya.

Hou Yi 羿

The Divine Archer was married to Chang'e and is associated with the sun. His skill was discovered by Emperor Yao in 2436BCE when he claimed that he could hit a tree on a distant hill. Not only did he accomplish this but he rode the air to retrieve the arrow. Houyi (also known as Shenyi) was also skilled in carpentry, and built a palace for Chang'e on the Moon and one for himself on the Sun. Some legends say that rather like Zhinu and Nuiling, he can only visit Chang'e at the Mid-autumn moon festival. He is said to have shot and killed nine of the ten sun ravens that threatened to burn up the Earth.

Huang Di

The legendary Yellow Emperor Huangdi is considered the founder of China and original ancestor of all Chinese people. He is the god of architecture and is credited with the invention of many things including vehicles; armor; boats and pottery. The Chinese count of years begins at the year of his birth 2698BCE. At the end of his reign the phoenix and qilin appeared to indicate their approval for his wise reign.

Ji Gong

The popular figure Ji Gong was a very clever Buddhist monk who took delight in wrong-footing people in authority. He was a maverick, choosing to eat meat in defiance of normal Buddhist practice. He is often shown as somewhat intoxicated with wine holding a fan or leaning against a tree. The real life figure lived during the Southern Song dynasty but after his death he was imbued with magical powers. He was popularized by a TV series in the 1980s.

Kuixing kuí xīng

The god of literature is associated with a star in Ursa Major (the Big Dipper). There are other historical figures who are sometimes called Kuixing for example Zhong kui and Wen Chang - it is all a bit confusing. He is portrayed with an ugly face - large eyes and a square chin often in a pose based on the configuration of the pointer stars in the Big Dipper (as they point to the North pole star). His ill looks resulted in the emperor refusing to give him his just reward in the examinations, in response he threw himself in a river in despair. As god of the examinations his figure is a popular gift to aspiring students.

Lei Gong

The Duke of Thunder Lei Gong, is depicted as a hideous looking black demon with bat's wings; a monkey's face and an eagle's beak. In one hand he holds a steel chisel while in the other a hammer with which he beats numerous drums.

Lei Zhenzi

Lei Zhenzi is separate from Lei Gong but is also associated with thunder. He has three eyes, an extra one in his forehead from which a ray of light emerges. He rides a black unicorn which covers huge distances in no time. The associated rain makes him a popular god for farmers; grain merchants and inn keepers.

Liu Hai

Liu Haior Liu Haichan is another Daoist god of wealth often depicted with a string of coins and accompanied with a three legged toad. Various tales are told about him. The magical toad was said to be able to transport him anywhere he wished. He may have been an official during the Jin dynasty and actually an alchemist called Liu Xuanying. China has some large toad statues that are associated with wealth and many people offer coins for good luck.

Long Wang

The Dragon King is the chief of all dragons and controls all the waters: sea; rivers; lakes and streams.

Lu Ban 鲁班

The God of Carpenters and Craftsmen is based on the tale of a man who lived in the Shandong province in the Spring and Autumn Period. He was given the ability to rise in the air unsupported and ride the clouds. An alternative story is that he lived in Gansu and built a kite that could lift him from the ground.

Luo Han

A luo han or (阿罗 a Luó hàn) is the Chinese name for an arhat , a Buddhist who has achieved enlightenment (nirvana) and is freed from all earthly cravings and so leaves the cycle of rebirths. An arhat works for personal enlightenment compared to a Pu Sa (Bodhisattva) who works for general good of all. There are considered to be 18 identified Luohans each with their own object or attendant by with they can be identified in pictures and figurines.

Ma gu

Magu or Lady Ma is an auspicious Daoist deity often shown with a bamboo staff and a boy carrying a peach of immortality or a basket of herbs and peaches of immortality. Often she is accompanied with a deer and the Queen Mother of the West. She is regarding as having lived in the Han dynasty and many temples, caves and mountains are named after her. She is most associated with having long fingernails, indeed legend has it that the Emperor wished Magu would scratch an irritating itch he had with her nails, he was punished by being whipped by a demon. A back-scratcher is often named after her in reference to this event.

Ma zu

The Daoist goddess māzǔ is of importance along the coastline of Southern China as she is associated with the sea and there is considered the Queen of Heaven. Many temples have been built so fishermen and seafarers can seek Mazu's help in procuring good weather. She is said to have 哩眼 qiān lǐ yǎn 'eyes that see a thousand miles' and shùn fēng ěr 'ears for favorable winds'. She is honored on the 23rd day of the third lunar month. There is a famous temple to her at Macau and the name 'Macau' may have its origin in her name. There is a number of cross-overs with the Buddhist goddess Guanyin.

buddha, laughing buddha, deity
Golden laughing Buddha, Xi'an, Shaanxi

Mi Le Fo 弥勒佛

The fat, laughing figure is often seen on Chinese paintings and as sculptures. The 'Laughing Buddha' represents the hope of future happiness. He is Maitreya, the Bodhisattva that will be the next to come after the Shakyamuni Buddha . A legend says he came to live in Zhejiang province in the tenth century where he helped the poor and needy. He is full of endless love for mankind. He is usually shown seated near the entrance to Buddhist temples and represents na?ve geniality.

Nezha 哪吒 No Cha WG

This legendary hero (also known as Nuozha) of the Shang dynasty is portrayed as a youth wielding a magic gold bracelet that he could increase in size at will. He also bears a spear and rides a fire chariot. He is mentioned in the famous book the ‘Journey to the West’. He was able to stave off the attack of the Dragon King. In one tradition the layout of the city Beijing is based on the form of his body.

Nüwa

Nuwa (also known as Nügua) is the goddess of matchmakers. She was the brother of legendary Emperor Fuxi and like him has the body of a snail (or snake) with a human head. She drew up the marriage laws that forbade incest and codified the conduct of engagements and weddings. There are many conflicting creation fables about her, so she probably is on the most ancient Chinese deities, she is fabled to have created music; and even humanity itself. The creation of mankind by Nuwa is celebrated on the seventh day of the New Year. Fuxi and Nuwa are often depicted entwined together with snake-like bodies.

Pan Gu

The creator of the Universe according to tradition in China is Pangu. He was the child of 'yin' and 'yang' and is shown as a dwarf in a bear skin. Other legends give different stories including one where Pan gu is the primal egg ( pán can mean shell of egg) from which he and then all life hatched. He holds a hammer and chisel and fashions the cosmos out of solid rock. He is the great architect and is helped by qilins; tortoises; phoenixes and dragons. The creation took 18,000 years and after that his body 'decayed' to become the heavenly bodies; mountains; humans and other part of the world. This legend seems to have appeared as late as 220CE and may have come from India. It is important among some of the ethnic people of Southern China.

Pengzu

Pengzu is reputed to have reached the age of 800 years, at the age of seventy he was said to look like a baby. The quest for immortality in China goes back a long way, and is particularly associated with Daoists. It was considered that by careful control of the qi 'life essence' an age of 120 could be achieved, by knowing the dao 'way' an even greater age could be reached. Pengzu is the emblem of this dream and is often depicted praying and burning incense surrounded by children. When portrayed on a gift he symbolizes a wish for long life.

Chinese Tortures

Chinese Tortures

Culture

China since early Imperial times has had a system of brutal punishments for crime. Torture was routinely used to extract a confession and there was no defence attorney to help you. For high treason a particularly gruesome and painful death was devised - death by a thousand cuts. Even today China uses the death penalty more frequently than the rest of the world put together.

Pu Sa 菩萨

The term Bodhisattva is transliterated in Chinese as 菩提萨陀 Pú tí sà tuó in Chinese which can be further abbreviated to just Pu sa. A Bodhisattva is an enlightened Buddhist that continues in the cycle of rebirth to work for the good of others.

Pu Xian

The Buddhist God of Universal Benevolence (Samantabhadra 贤菩萨) is usually portrayed riding a white elephant. He is particularly associated with the sacred Mount Emei Sichuan. He wears a yellow robe with a red collar and often carries a lotus. He is one of top Buddhas and often displayed in prestigious places in Buddhist temples.

Qing Long and Bai Hu ;

The blue dragon qīng lóng and white tiger bái hǔ perform the same duties for Daoist temples as Heng and Ha do for Buddhist ones, they act as guardians. Bái hǔ Deng Jiugong of the Shang dynasty was a general and wounded by Heng becoming the spirit of the Blue Dragon star. Yin Chengxiu was an official who went as an emissary to Jiang Ziya but was executed by him. His son then went to avenge his death and was killed to be later canonized as the spirit of the white tiger.

San Qing

The Three Pure Ones (Yu Qing : Jade Azure; Shang Qing : High Azure and Tai Qing : Supreme Azure) are a triad of Daoist gods that rule over the three traditional divisions of the sky. Yu Qing is the Jade Emperor while Shang Qing governs yin and yang while Tai Qing is the celestial form of Laozi himself.

Shangdi

Shangdi is the Supreme sovereign and ancestor, it is he that gives power to the Emperor. He punishes the bad and rewards the good. He is omniscient and omnipresent and acts through his ministers Guan Yu; Cheng Huang and Tu di. The belief in this ancestral god somewhat faded by the time of the Han dynasty; he is venerated mainly by followers of Confucius. The Emperor was thought of as his representative on Earth and only the Emperor could worship him, he was the only conduit to heaven.

Tang dynasty, Buddhism, Chongqing
Demon punishing the sinful at Dazu caves, Chongqing

Sheji 社祭

The god of Earth and cultivation passes on his power to good rulers with the result of a bounteous harvest.

Shennong

The successor of legendary Emperor Fuxi is considered the God of Agriculture. Shennong studied the ways of plants and devised the first lists of properties and the uses of herbs.

Shengren

People who have lived exceptional lives are canonized and called shengren (similar to ‘saint’ and ‘sage’) and live in the Yu Jing (Jade Azure) part of the sky.

Shenshu and Yulü 郁垒

According to the Shanhaijing the Jade Emperor ordered Shēnshū and Yùlù to guard peach trees which were being attacked by demons. They are widely depicted as door guardians to ward off evil.

Si Da Tianwang

The four Celestial kings sì dà tiān wáng are guardians of the Universe. They act as Temple guardians and are also associated with the four seasons and four elements (Fire; air; earth; water). Statues of them guard temples. Li carries a pagoda; Ma a sword; Zhao two swords and Wen a pointed stick.

Sun Wukong 悟空

The Monkey King Sūn Wùkōng is the hero of the famous book ‘Journey to the West’ which tells the story of Xuanzang and his followers into India. He is the god of official messengers.

Tianhou

Tianhou is the Daoist Empress of Heaven, and is another name for the goddess Mazu and somewhat akin to the Buddhist Guanyin. In Hong Kong she is called ‘Tinhau’.

Tudi Gong

The guardian of the rural countryside and wild places is Tudi. By contrast Sheji's jurisdiction is limited to cultivated areas of land.

Village deity

Each village had its own deity, worshiped at its own village temple. There would be at least one big festival held each year in its honor. As neighboring villages had different festival days a district would have some sort of village fair going on all year round. At the fair, many stalls would be set out selling all kinds of goods and produce. Gambling games would be held. Acrobats, local opera and shadow theaters would perform to the delight of the visitors. It was one of few opportunities to socialize outside the home (often family) village.

Wen Chang

The God of Culture and Literature is based partly on the life of an exceptional Tang scholar Zhang Ya born in Zhejiang. He moved to Zitong, Sichuan where he was worshiped as a god after a mysterious disappearance. He is often associated with a wise serpent. Other legends base Wen Chang on Zhong Kui who although exceptionally talented was so ugly that the Emperor refused to hire him. In despair Kui threw himself in the sea but was rescued by a sea monster. He is represented as standing on the head of a fish (carp) brandishing a writing brush. He went to heaven and forms part of the stars. Wén Chāng wáng is associated with four acolytes : a servant; the Celestial Deaf man; the Earthly Dumb man and Kuixing (a fat dwarf with a demon's face). It is Kui xing who brings luck in examinations.

Wenshu

Wenshu, the Chinese name for Manjusri, is the Bodhisattva of transcendental wisdom. The Wutai mountain, Shanxi is sacred to him.

Xi Wangmu 西

The Queen Mother of the West (xī wáng mǔ) is the spirit of pure yin as the opposite of Dong Wanggong pure yang. She lives in the Kunlun mountains in the West of China defended by a spirit army. She is sometimes portrayed with a panther's tail and tiger's teeth. She represents integrity and virtue. Her palace is bedecked in gold and precious stones and is the location where the gods hold their banquets. Great emperors of antiquity visited her on occasions. It is possible that she is based on an historical leader of a separate kingdom in Western China a little like the Queen of Sheba . She is mostly associated with the quest for immortality as the peaches of immortality grow there, and it was there that the Monkey King stole some. She was one of the most revered of Chinese deities and her worship was fanatical in the later Han dynasty. She is often attended by two young girls one with a fan and the other a bowl of the magic peaches. She flies on the back of a crane and accompanies by bluebirds and phoenixes.

Chinese Cuisine

A fine Chinese meal is a carefully balanced mixtures of flavors, textures, colors and food types. Although Western fast food has made major inroads in the cities there is still a great appreciation as food as one of the finer pleasures in life. Etiquette at formal banquets is important for visitors to understand before visiting China. Each region in China has its own variations with regional specialities, the cuisine in Guangdong is very different from that of Gansu.
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Xianren

While Buddhists seek paradise in the life after death, Daoists seek immortality. The Daoist adept will build up qi in the body until it fills the whole person, then the body metamorphoses and although seeming dead, life continues. A xianren 'immortal person' is someone who has reached this extreme level of perfection.

Yanluowang 阎罗

Yan is the king of the fifth court of hell ( dì yù in Chinese). He was demoted from the first circle for not being brutal enough. It is the Daoist equivalent to Yama the Buddhist God of Death. He judges and punishes the deceased.

Yao and Shun

Emperor Yao is from the legendary era of Chinese history after a miraculous birth he took the throne in 2357BCE and after ruling wisely for 70 or so years abdicated in favor of Emperor Shun who was the model of filial piety and the inventor of the ink-brush.

Yao Wang

The King of Medicine showed incredible literacy at an early age. He was initiated into the mysteries of immortality and yin and yang. The Dragon King presented him with a set of secrets to benefit mankind. He was friend and doctor to Tang Emperor Gaozong. He is depicted with two young helpers one with a gourd of pills while the other holds the leaf of a medicinal herb.

Yu

Yu the Great was a legendary Emperor who succeeded Emperor Shun as the founder of the Xia dynasty. He is known for his work on irrigation and the defense against floods.

Jade emperor, deity
The Jade Emperor, who is the Supreme deity of Daoism

Yudi

The Pure August (Yu Huangdi) or Jade Emperor is the Daoist supreme sovereign of the Universe somewhat similar to Shangdi; there are many cross-overs with Buddhist deities too. He was able to command all sorts of spirits and genies as well as the kings of hell. He is one of the trinity of Three Pure Ones. . He came into prominence under Song Emperor Zhenzong who claimed to have contact with the Jade Emperor. The appearance helped stabilize his rule in troubled times.

Zao Jun

The Hearth or Kitchen god (also known as Zaoshen and Zaowang) is an important god because Zao Jun observes the conduct of all families. With food being so important to a family he controls the health and prosperity of the home. It is on the eve of Chinese New Year that families pay particular deference so that he can relay a favorable report on the household's life to heaven for the last year - his lips are smeared with honey. Traditionally a portrait of him was hung in the kitchen which was ritually burned and replaced every New Year. Originally, before the Song dynasty, he was important as the God of Furnaces and associated with alchemy.

Zhang Daoling

Zhāng Dàolíng or Zhang Ling was a sage of Daoism, born 35CE during the Han dynasty he quickly learned all about Daoist concepts of yin yang; astronomy and nature. He developed recipes for potions for immortality and alchemy. By the age of 60 he had perfected the immortality pill by uniting the blue dragon and white tiger. Eventually he moved to Yuntai in Sichuan from where he ascended to heaven in 157CE leaving a magic book and sword.

Zhang Qian

Zhāng Qiān was a historical figure from the Han dynasty [164-113BCE]. He served as a diplomat and explorer of Central Asia. Over the centuries his life has gathered legends, he is said to have discovered all the animals. He journeyed all the way to the source of the Yellow River where her met the goddess Qi Nu. He became a Daoist immortal often shown on a raft and carrying a gourd.

Zhenren

The Perfect Beings are adepts at the highest level of Daoist learning who have perfect control over themselves and nature. They live in the Shang Qing High Azure heaven.

Zhinu

The Spinning Damsel Zhinu was a daughter of the sun god who was concerned that she spent too much of her time spinning and wanted her to marry his neighbor the Herdsman Niulang across the Milky Way. She soon followed his wishes and was married but then entirely neglected her spinning tasks in a life of dissipation. Her father was so angry that he separated Niulang from her husband. They could only meet once a year on the seventh day of the seventh month. To make a bridge over the Milky Way he commanded magpies to spread their wings. As they would only come if it was dry she earnestly prayed for rain to keep away on that day. Nowadays this event is celebrated as Chinese Valentine's Day.

Zhongkui

Zhōng Kuí, the Demon Queller, is one of the most powerful deities for keeping away evil spirits. His picture is displayed at the Dragon Boat Festival (summer solstice). He may be shown wielding a sword attacking the five noxious creatures. He is shown with wild hair, fierce eyes and a sword. In some legends he is also the god of examinations Kui xing .

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Zhuge Liang 诸葛亮

Although not a deity as such, Zhuge Liang is a much admired historical figure from the Three Kingdoms Period. His clever strategies helped Liu Bei found the Kingdom of Shu. Zhuge twice pretended not to be at home when Liu Bei came looking for him so he could judge Liu Bei's how determined he was to recruit him.

Zhurong 祝融

The god of fire has a number of legends associated with him. He has been dated back to a minister under the Yellow Emperor or a contemporary of Fuxi. His is controller of fire, rather than bringer of fire, as he can put them out as easily as start them. He is associated with the warm south and is attended by two dragons. He may also be accompanied with other fire-related attendants: birds; serpents; fireballs and firewheels. He is commemorated on the 17th day of the 8th lunar month when people seek his protection from fire.

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